生物多样性 ›› 2015, Vol. 23 ›› Issue (3): 314-320.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2015097

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罗布泊野骆驼的家域特征及其意义

袁磊1,3, 马浩2, 程芸3, 杨欢2, 萨根古丽3, Adiya Yadamsuren2, 朱海涌4, 马友青2, 王建林1, 张烁2, 马杏叶2, 刁庆安3, 刘少创2,*()   

  1. 1 (兰州大学生命科学学院, 兰州 730000)
    2 (中国科学院遥感与数字地球研究所, 北京 100094)
    3 (罗布泊野骆驼国家级自然保护区管理局, 乌鲁木齐 830011)
    4 (新疆环境监测总站, 乌鲁木齐 830011)
  • 收稿日期:2015-04-20 接受日期:2015-04-30 出版日期:2015-06-09 发布日期:2015-06-12
  • 通讯作者: 刘少创
  • 基金资助:
    环保部新疆罗布泊野骆驼国家级自然保护区综合科学考察项目(20100228)

Qualitative study of wild camels (Camelus ferus) home range in Lop Nur, China

Lei Yuan1,3, Hao Ma2, Yun Cheng3, Huan Yang2, Guli SaGen3, Adiya Yadamsuren2, Haiyong Zhu4, Youqing Ma2, Jianlin Wang1, Shuo Zhang2, Xingye Ma2, Qing’an Diao3, Shaochuang Liu2,*   

  1. 1 School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000
    2 Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100094
    3 Bureau of Xinjiang Lop Nur Wild Camel National Nature Reserve, Urumqi 830011
    4 Xinjiang Environmental Monitoring Station, Urumqi 830011
  • Received:2015-04-20 Accepted:2015-04-30 Online:2015-06-09 Published:2015-06-12
  • Contact: Liu Shaochuang

摘要:

野双峰骆驼(Camelus ferus)生活在荒漠戈壁, 种群数量稀少, 栖息地地形复杂多样, 且有长距离迁徙习性, 目前对其家域面积和重要栖息地范围的研究只有定性描述。本研究于2012年5月至2013年7月, 在阿奇克谷地和阿尔金山北麓捕捉了8峰野骆驼并安装GPS卫星跟踪项圈, 分别获得了12-423天的13,748个GPS位点记录。研究结果表明, 8峰野骆驼的100%最小凸多边形(minimum convex polygons, MCP)家域面积分别为1,775-11,768 km2, 总家域面积为32,821 km2, 占罗布泊野骆驼分布区面积的23.1%, 平均家域面积为7,349 ± 1,323 km2。野骆驼个体家域面积季节间差异显著, 秋季最大, 其次是冬季和夏季, 春季最小, 秋季是春季的4.4倍。野骆驼在繁殖季节的家域平均面积为879 ± 320 km2, 非繁殖季节为998 ± 106 km2, 二者间无显著差异。除了项圈编码为135号的野骆驼和其他7峰野骆驼的家域没有重叠外, 其余7峰野骆驼的家域都有重叠。这7峰野骆驼的家域总面积是24,910 km2, 占罗布泊野骆驼分布区总面积的17.5%, 重叠区面积是515 km2。鉴于野骆驼主要分布在阿奇克谷地及以南区域、阿尔金山北麓, 建议将罗布泊野骆驼国家级自然保护区位于阿奇克谷地北山以北的核心区部分区域、磁海低地以南的山区和阿尔金山西部原为实验区的部分区域调整为缓冲区, 而将阿尔金山北麓至库姆塔格沙漠之间的戈壁地带原为缓冲区的部分区域调整为核心区。

关键词: Camelus ferus, 行为学, GPS项圈, 家域, 保护

Abstract:

The home range of wild camels (Camelus ferus) was studied qualitatively using standard techniques. This study focused on the home range of wild camels in the Lop Nur, China using GPS satellite tracking collar technology. From May 2012 to July 2013, GPS collars were fitted to 8 wild camels in areas to the north of the Arjin Mountains and Aqik Valley, the most important habitat of the wild camel. The 100% minimum convex polygons (MCP) home range ranged from 1,775 to 11,768 km2 with a mean range of 7,349 ± 1,323 km2. The total square kilometers of the home range was 32,821 km2, nearly 23.1% of the entire wild camel range in Lop Nur. Overlap in home range was common between different individuals. One individual was isolated compared to the other 7 individuals. The home range of these 7 individuals was 24,910 km2, 17.5% of the entire wild camel range in Lop Nur. The overlapping area of the 7 individuals was 515 km2. The home range area was largest in the autumn and smallest in the spring. The autumn home range was four times larger than that of the spring range. Home range was also affected by phonological phase of the individuals though the results were not significant. The range during breeding season was 879 ± 320 km2 and 998 ± 106 km2 in the anestrous season. The results of this study provide a preliminary description of the home range of wild camels in Lop Nur and provide a basis for adjustment of the current management plan for core zone and buffer zone in the Lop Nur Wild Camel National Nature Reserve.

Key words: wild camel, behavior, GPS collar, home range, conservation