Background & Aims: Overgrazing poses a dominant threat to the biodiversity of most grassland communities. Bees are the primary pollinator group in the grassland ecosystem. Grazing has generally negative effects on bee diversity by affecting floral and nesting resources in grassland communities. However, in communities with long grazing history and reasonable grazing management, grazing may have a positive or neutral impact on bee diversity. Therefore, how grazing affects bee diversity and its role in ecological restoration needs further study. Progress: In this study, we integrate the recent literature and research practice, and propose that the efficacy of bee restoration can be more accurately assessed through the integration of bee species richness, functional diversity, phylogenetic diversity and full plant-pollinator interaction networks, which provide comprehensive and quantitative information on the structure and function of grassland communities. For grasslands with low degradation, bees can be gradually recovered by effective grazing management, which uses the natural recovery potential of the communities. For grasslands with greater degradation, it is necessary to accelerate the bee restoration through active interventions on the basis of grazing management, such as sowing wildflower species that cannot migrate into the restoration area without assistance and enhancing the availability of nesting habitat for bees. To ensure that bees can obtain enough floral rewards in different flowering periods, the selection and combination of the sown flower species should take into account their roles in the pollination network, floral traits and flowering phenology.Perspective: It is of great practical significance to investigate the mechanism of bee loss in different types of grasslands in southern and northern China, and to guide the development of targeted ecological restoration strategies for bees.
Aims: The red imported fire ant (RIFA), Solenopsis invicta, is one of the world’s worst invasive species, both environmentally and ecologically. In this study, we aim to analyze the spatial pattern of RIFA and the interactive mechanism of driving factors of its population density in island cities.Methods: We used the Haitan Island as an example, the biggest island in Fujian Province, to analyze the spatial pattern of RIFA populations using Kernel density estimation and spatial autocorrelation models. We also used geographical detector to elucidate the individual and interactive effects of both environmental factors (8 types) and socio-economic factors (10 types) on RIFA prevalence.Results: The spatial density of RIFA populations in the study area was characterized by uneven distribution, with the highest population density occurring in farmland (high-high aggregation), followed by landscaping and greening land (high-low and low-low aggregation), and the lowest density around residential areas. There were positive spatial autocorrelations within the population range. The q value for the interpretation of 18 impact factors on the spatial differentiation ranged from 0.014 to 0.278. Overall, there were differences between the effects of the two types of factors on RIFA occurrence, and the mean q value of the socio-economic factors were higher than those of the environmental factors. The socio-economic factors that had the greatest impact on RIFA occurrence were rural population size (q = 0.278) and township area (q = 0.268). The soil classification (q = 0.172) and average annual precipitation (q = 0.149) were stronger than other environmental factors. The interaction between township area and distance to nearby scenic spot, and average annual precipitation and distance to nearby scenic spot, had the greatest impact on the occurance of RIFA (q = 0.466). The combined effect of environmental and socio-economic factors positively enhanced the occurance of RIFA.Conclusion: Our study indicates that agricultural cultivation, seedling introduction in urban greening construction, and transportation significantly affect the spatial pattern of RIFA prevalence in island cities. As far as its prevention and control strategy is concerned, we should not only implement strict plant quarantine regulations on imported seedlings and cargo, but also take locally-appropriate measures to effectively reduce the population size and prevent the spread of RIFA.
Aims: Afforestation though patch planting is one of the main ways of plantation construction in China. As a result, a large number of edge environments have emerged between different patches in the forest. The unique characteristics of these edge environments and their effects on biodiversity are worthy of attention. The purpose of this study is to explore its biodiversity performance characteristics.Methods: This study was based on the four different combinations of tree species, specifically the patches of Populus tomentosa forest and Styphnolobium japonicum forest, Styphnolobium japonicum forest and Koelreuteria paniculata forest, Juniperus chinensis forest and Styphnolobium japonicum forest, Salix matsudana forest and Eucommia ulmoides forest in Beijing Plain. The research selected the moth population in these forests as study objects and analyzed the species number, species composition and diversity of moth using non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS), analysis of similarities (Anosim), and species diversity index. Based on the survey of vegetation characteristic factors, Pearson correlation analysis was used to investigate the relationship between vegetation factors and moth community characteristics.Results: A total of 4,428 moths were collected, representing 144 species of 24 families. (1) The composition of moth species differed between the edges and the patches, with unique species in the edge accounted for 13.59%-18.32% of the total species in the sample plot. (2) The diversity index of edge species was generally found to be slightly higher than or between that pure forest patches. The dominance index of the edge of Salix matsudana forest and Eucommia ulmoides forest was significantly higher than that of Eucommia ulmoides forest patch, while the Shannon-Wiener diversity index and Margalef richness index were significantly higher than that of Salix matsudana forest patch. Moreover, the Pielou evenness index of the edge was significantly lower than that of Eucommia ulmoides forest patch. (3) The moth Simpson dominance index was found to be negatively correlated with the average height and coverage of vegetation and the number of moth species was positively correlated with the average height and coverage of vegetation. (4) The four types of edge effects were all positive (IH' > 1), and the edge effect intensity of the edge of Salix matsudana forest and Eucommia ulmoides forest was the lowest (IC = 0.915185808).Conclusion: Some certain groups of moths inhabit marginal habitats, which contribute to the higher biodiversity found in patch plantations. The edge effects of paths composed of different tree species exhibit distinct biodiversity characteristics, and there is a possibility of dominant species outbreaks. This study can provide guidance for future subsequent afforestation and stand management.
Aims: The pollination behaviors of Apis cerana cerana (Acc) and Apis mellifera ligustica (Aml) have a significant meaning in maintaining ecosystem stability and improving crop yield and quality. However, their pollination behaviors are different. The aim of this study is to analyze the differences of pollinating habit and plant diversity between the two species under low temperature during the late autumn and winter periods. Methods: We observed the pollination process of Acc and Aml, and collected the pollen in Xiasha Higher Education Campus of Hangzhou City during the late autumn and winter periods. The pollen morphology was analyzed by ordinary and scanning electron microscope, and further determined based on the gene ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (rbcl) amplified and DNA barcode. Finally, the diversity of pollinating plants was compared according to the pollen species during the late autumn and winter.Results: Both Acc and Aml can pollinate the local plants during the late autumn and winter periods, but Acc had better adaptability and pollination frequency in the morning from 8:30 to 9:30 (P < 0.05). For different plants, Acc and Aml can pollinate many kinds of plant. Acc tended to collect pollen of Humulus scandens, Rosa chinensis, Eriobotrya laoshanica, and Hedera nepalensis var. sinensis, while Aml was partial to collect pollen of Ternstroemia gymnanthera, Chrysanthemum boreale, and Zinnia baageana.Conclusions: In general, Acc and Aml can pollinate many kinds of plant during autumn and winter, and Acc have more extensive plant source. The investigation of pollination diversity and differences between Acc and Aml during the late autumn and winter periods will be helpful to study the pollination rules and preferences of honeybees, and provide theoretical for ecological protection in Hangzhou City.
Aims: In monoecious Ficus species, fig wasps lay eggs in the ovaries to propagate their offspring while also pollinating female flowers to generate seeds after they reach the female phase figs. On the other hand, in dioecious Ficus, fig wasps lay eggs in the ovaries of male figs and pollinate female flowers in female figs, indicating their differential reproductive tasks in the male and female figs. Our study aims to investigate interspecific differences and diversity in the oviposition and pollination behaviors of pollinating fig wasps and quantify the time involved in different behaviors in female phase figs, a subject that has been scarcely studied.Methods: We selected four partners belonging to Ceratosolen wasps and subgenus Sycomorus figs, comprising both monoecious and dioecious fig species. Initially, we determined the pollination modes by collecting anther/ovule ratios of Ficus species, observing pollination structures and behaviors of pollinating fig wasps. The length of wasp ovipositors and flower styles were measured under the microscope with a micrometer to verify their matching. Additionally, we observed and quantitatively record the searching, oviposition and pollination behaviors of Ceratosolen spp. in female phase figs using a Digital Microscope.Results: Our study found that monoecious Ficus racemosa, dioecious F. auriculata, F. hispida and F. semicordata were actively pollinated by their respective Ceratosolen pollinating fig wasps, which exhibited an active pollination mode. The length of ovipositors and flower styles were found to be matching, with pollinating fig wasps in monoecious figs laying eggs in some female flowers for offspring reproduction and pollinating some other female flowers to produce seeds. In dioecious figs, pollinating fig wasps laid eggs in male figs to reproduce offspring and pollinated female flowers in female figs to produce seeds. Moreover, the searching, oviposition, and pollination behaviors of Ceratosolen spp. in female phase figs were diverse. In monoecious figs, pollinating fig wasps primarily laid eggs in the first six hours after entering the figs and then pollinated female flowers, with a short time cost per pollination behavior. However, in dioecious male and female figs pollinating fig wasps pollinated female flowers at the end of each oviposition behavior and then extracted the ovipositors before repeating a similar behavior. As pollinating fig wasps oviposited more times, they also pollinated female flowers more times. Nevertheless, irregularity was observed in the pollinating fig wasps’ behavior in the female figs of F. hispida and F. semicordata. Conclusion: Our study found that the time cost of per oviposition for Ceratosolen spp. was longer than that of pollination, and the time costs of searching, oviposition and pollination behaviors varied in different reproductive systems and sexes. Our results shed light on the diversity and different patterns of pollination and oviposition behaviors of fig wasps in female phase figs, providing a valuable reference for studying the behavioral diversity of other pollinators.
Aims: In order to better guide the functional zoning of nature reserves, it is necessary to conduct scientific investigation and assessment of basic biodiversity data from each nature reserve and its surrounding areas. Solitary wasps are important natural predators of agricultural and forestry pests and are also important environmental biological indicators. In this study, we aimed to assess the relationship between spatial distribution of species diversity on solitary wasps (Vespidae) and functional zoning in the Chebaling National Nature Reserve, Guangdong Province.
Methods: From 2018 to 2020, we investigated the diversity and distribution of Vespidae wasps and their driving factors in a typical subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest in Nanling using artificial trap-nests and km-grid protocols (a total of 100 survey grids with a grid size of 1 km × 1 km) across the whole region and its surrounding areas in the Chebaling National Nature Reserve.
Results: In this study, a total of 4,156 wasp trap-nests and 9,973 brood cells were obtained, and 9 wasp species were identified, distributed in 89 grids, and the distribution map of their species richness and abundance was drawn. The results indicated that elevation, the distance to the nearest settlement, and enhanced vegetation index (EVI) may act as the key environmental factors affecting species richness, abundance, and distribution of the wasp community. Species richness, the nest number, and brood cells of Vespidae wasps decreased significantly with increasing elevation, and species richness and abundance were much higher when the sites were closer to the settlement. However, the α diversity index of the wasp community demonstrated a pattern with an initial increase and then decrease with EVI. The overall β diversity, species turnover, and the nestedness of the wasp community was 0.21, 0.05, and 0.16, respectively, which indicated that the nestedness was the main distribution pattern of the wasp community in the nature reserve. Distance redundancy analysis demonstrated that species turnover was significantly influenced by elevation, whereas the nestedness was not affected by any environmental factor involved in this paper. The abundance of nests or brood cells outside the nature reserve were significantly higher than those in the other three functional zones, while all α diversity indices (species richness, Shannon diversity, Simpson diversity, and Pielou evenness) indicated no significant differences amongst the four functional zones. This suggested that the wasp communities had similar species composition and no obvious distribution boundary across all the functional zones in this nature reserve.
Conclusion: Based on the grid survey in the Chebaling National Nature Reserve, this study mapped the spatial distribution of wasp diversity and then revealed the relationship between the wasp diversity and the functional zoning in the Nanling subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest. Our study provides a scientific basis for the long-term monitoring and conservation management of insect biodiversity in protected areas.
Backgruound & Aims: Cavity-nesting Hymenoptera are both predators and pollinators and provide key services for ecosystem functioning. Previously, there have been few studies on cavity-nesting Hymenoptera in subtropical forests. Yet this study aims to better understand the diversity and biology of cavity-nesting Hymenopterans in subtropical forest in China.
Methods: Trap nests were used to study the biology, life history, diversity and ecology of solitary bees and wasps. We used this method to collect cavity-nesting Hymenoptera in 88 plots. Based on five years of long-term monitoring and sampling on Biodiversity-Ecosystem Functioning Experiment China (BEF-China) platform, we recorded the species diversity of cavity-nesting Hymenoptera and relevant occurrence patterns of solitary bees and wasps.
Results: We found 3 orders, 25 families and 128 species in the trap nest system. Pollinators accounted for 26.6% of the diversity, mainly including Colletidae and Megachilidae with 12 species in 2 families. Predators represented 73.4% of the diversity, mainly including Eumeninae, Sphecidae, Pompilidae and Crabronidae with 44 species in 4 families. There were 72 species of parasitoids in 19 families, mainly including Sarcophagidae, Bombyliidae, Chrysididae, Trigonalyidae, and Eulophidae.
Conclusion: For species composition, we found the diversity of pollinators was significantly less than that of predators. Meanwhile, we noted the protandry was common in cavity-nesting Hymenoptera and more obvious in overwintering individuals. In addition, we also found variable occurrence patterns in different species. The occurrence time of Megachilidae and Crabronidae were more concentrated than that of Eumeninae and Pompilidae. Finally, by constructing the interaction relationship between host and parasitoids, we explained the abundance and richness of parasitoids to be regulated by the bottom-up effect of lower trophic hosts. Ultimately, a greater understanding of these organisms will help to better protect the resources wild cavity-nesting Hymenoptera use for their ecological services.
Aims: This research aimed to clarify the correlation between various environmental factors, such as anthropogenic impacts, and the insect diversity in urban forests, which can lead to the elucidation of key factors that can affect insect diversity in urban forests. Furthermore, this could result in the development and implementation of more efficient conservation guidelines and conservation strategies for the protection of urban species diversity.
Methods: From late July 2020 to early July 2021, with the use of sweeping method and Malaise traps, we collected insects from six habitats with different stand types from Zijin Mountain, Nanjing, including greenway in artificial broadleaf forest, greenway in broadleaf-conifer mixed forest, wetland in broadleaf-conifer mixed forest, as well as woodlands in artificial coniferous forest, broadleaf-conifer mixed forest, and broadleaf mixed forest. Insects were identified using morphological guides from taxonomic monographs. Shannon-Wiener diversity index, Pielou evenness index, Margalef richness index, and Simpson diversity index were used to evaluate α-diversity. Differences between insect diversity in different habitats and taxonomic orders were evaluated by Kruskal-Wallis analyses. Insect diversity in different habitats was estimated by rarefaction and extrapolation analyses. Bray-Curtis distance was calculated to evaluate the similarity of insect diversity and richness between different habitats. The influence of different environmental variables, both abiotic and biotic, on insect diversity was evaluated by redundancy analysis and Pearson correlation. Both samplings of the whole year and a part of summer were used.
Results: A total of 59,648 insects belonging to 145 species in 78 families and 9 orders were collected. Among these, the orders Lepidoptera, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, and Diptera had the highest number of species and relative abundance. Most species were captured between July and September. Rarefaction and extrapolation analyses showed that the collections of specimens can represent the insect communities of each habitat. The α-diversity analyses indicated that woodland in broadleaf mixed forest had the highest insect diversity among sampled habitats, while woodland in artificial coniferous forest had the lowest. Although most habitats do not differ significantly in α-diversity, in terms of species composition, only the wetland in broadleaf-conifer mixed forest was moderately similar to the woodland in broadleaf mixed forest. Other habitats were all moderately dissimilar or very dissimilar to each other. The redundancy analyses showed that artificial interference of vegetation, pedestrian volume, altitude, temperature, sunshine duration, and precipitation were the major variables that significantly impacted insect diversity at the southern foot of Zijin Mountain. In addition, Pearson analyses indicated that most variables are correlated to insect diversity. Despite the different effects environmental variables have on the α-diversity of major insect orders, artificial interference of vegetation had the most significant effect, as our results showed that insect diversity significantly decreased with the increase of artificial interference of vegetation. Considering the correlations between insect diversity and other variables that can be attributed to artificial interferences, we determined that vegetation structure was the variable that has the highest degree of influence on insect diversity in urban forests.
Conclusion: This study clarifies key factors affecting insect diversity in urban forests. This could potentially provide theoretical guidance in urban species diversity conservation. Scientific planning and management of vegetation structure may be the key to preserving insect diversity in urban forests. It is thus suggested that more research on the dominant factors affecting the diversity of the major insect groups be carried out. This, even at a smaller scale according to local conditions, could greatly benefit the dynamic management of urban forests.
Aims: The present work aims to analyze the environmental drivers of diversity in the butterfly community in the western Qinling Mountains.
Methods: In the autumn of 2020 and spring and summer of 2021, we investigated butterfly diversity in the western region of Qinling Mountains using line transects across multiple habitat types in 15 sampling areas. We used trend and extrapolation analyses for estimating α diversity, and non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) and cluster analyses for β diversity. For determining drivers of butterfly diversity, we fit environmental factors to diversity indices using a generalized additive model (GAM).
Results: We observed a total of 8,898 individuals representing 169 species, 84 genera, and 5 families. Of these families, the highest number of individuals were from Pieridae (N = 3,671), and the most number of species were from Nymphalidae (N = 80). We found that α diversity was highest during the summer and in coniferous and broad-leaved forests. For β diversity, we found the highest degree of similarity between coniferous and broad-leaved forest and deciduous broad-leaved forest, the low similarity between seasons, and that species are concentrated in spring and summer but relatively dispersed in autumn. The GAM fitted curves demonstrated several key relationships between environmental factors and butterfly diversity, including: (1) plant heterogeneity was correlated with butterfly community diversity; (2) an ambient temperature between 24℃ and 30℃ underlined a higher Pielou evenness index and a more stable butterfly community structure; and (3) humidity between 70% and 85% was associated with a higher Simpson index.
Conclusion: Butterfly community composition and diversity in the western region of Qinling Mountains were closely related to habitat type and have a distinct chronological relationship with seasons. Plant cover, abundance, humidity, and temperature are important factors in maintaining the diversity of butterfly species on a regional scale.
Aims: Fungus-feeding Phlaeothripidae species are important components of soil invertebrates. They will contribute to the studies of biodiversity conservation and utilization, plant protection and zoogeography. Current studies on the taxonomic diversity of these species in China are insufficient, and on influence factors of distribution patterns in large scale are still unclear. Based on the extensive field surveys from China and the taxonomic studies about specimens deposited in some collections of research institutions at home and abroad, we generated a Chinese checklist of known fungus-feeding Phlaeothripidae species with their geographical distribution, summarized the current status and brief history of the taxonomy, analyzed the distribution patterns of species diversity and their drivers.Progress: A total of 237 species of fungus-feeding Phlaeothripidae thrips were recorded in China, including 156 species from 39 genera in subfamily Phlaeothripinae and 81 species from 22 genera in subfamily Idolothripinae. Four genera were the dominant with each more than 10 species, including Bamboosiella, Psalidothrips, Apelaunothrips and Holothrips. Of these 73 species were endemic to China. More than 60 species were recorded from each province of Guangdong, Taiwan, Hainan and Yunnan, where had both tropical and subtropical humid monsoon climate characteristics and were suitable for survival of these organisms. Relative abundance analysis indicated that they were a common group of soil animals in forest litter layer of tropical and subtropical areas. Annual average temperature, precipitation and foods were the main factors for restricting the geographical distribution of these thrips.Prospects: The results provide evidences on broadening the research field of soil biodiversity and explaining the position and large-scale spatiotemporal pattern of fungus-feeding thrips.
Aims: Harvest ant nests are an important microhabitat in gobi ecosystems that greatly affect the distribution and diversity of animals and plants by enhancing litter and improving the soil environment. This study analyzed the distribution pattern and influencing factors of soil macrofauna diversity between ant nest and adjacent bare ground microhabitats.Methods: We investigated the assemblage of soil macrofauna in gobi Messor desertus ant nests and adjacent bare ground microhabitats using pitfall traps in May, June, and October 2020.Results: (1) The community composition of soil macrofauna differed between ant nest and adjacent bare ground microhabitats and showed obvious seasonal variations. Soil macrofauna communities of ant nests and adjacent bare ground differed significantly in October, with an average dissimilarity of 62.9%. Slight differences were also observed in May and June, with 34.8% and 39.3% average dissimilarity, respectively. (2) The activity density and groups richness of soil macrofauna were significantly higher in ant nests than in adjacent bare ground microhabitats in June; the groups richness and diversity index of soil macrofauna communities were also higher in ant nests in October, and the evenness index of soil macrofauna communities was significantly lower in ant nests than bare ground microhabitats in May. (3) Ant nests significantly increased the activity density and groups richness, which increased the interactions between predatory and non-predatory soil macrofauna and altered the interactions between Messor desertus and some soil macrofauna groups. (4) pRDA showed that soil electrical conductivity, total nitrogen, and silt content were the main soil factors driving the distribution of soil macrofauna communities between ant nest and adjacent bare ground microhabitats.Conclusion: Messor desertus ant nests increased the diversity of soil macrofauna communities and altered the trophic and non-trophic relationship among soil macrofauna groups, which affects the trophic structure and ecological function of soil macrofauna communities.
Aims: The purpose of the study is to further understand the species/genus composition and activity rhythms of ground-dwelling beetles of gobi.Methods: From January to December during 2018 and 2020, the number of individuals and species of ground-dwelling beetles in a gobi desert of the Hexi Corridor were continuously observed with pitfall traps, and the climatic elements of the region were observed.Results: (1) Ground-dwelling beetles of the gobi were composed of 21 species from 5 families, including carabid, chrysomelid, curculionid, geotrupid and tenebrionid, and Microdera kraatzi alashanica, Blaps gobiensis and Lethrus potanini were the dominant species; (2) The activity rhythm of ground-dwelling beetles in gobi had obvious seasonal variations. The activity period of ground-dwelling beetles were from March to October, the activity density of ground-dwelling beetles peaked in April to July, and the species richness of ground-dwelling beetles peaked in May; (3) The activity density of ground-dwelling beetles increased significantly in 2019 with increased precipitation, and the species richness and diversity index of ground-dwelling beetles decreased significantly in 2018 with decreased precipitation; (4) The type of feeding and individuals size of ground-dwelling beetles affected their activity rhythm. The years of increased precipitation increased the activity density of the curculionid of phytophagous and some species of the tenebrionid, and the response of the activity density of some species of tenebrionid showed a certain hysteresis with precipitation; (5) The change of precipitation and temperature strongly affected the activity rhythm of ground-dwelling beetles. The number of individuals and species of ground-dwelling beetles had a significant quadratic and exponential relationship with monthly average precipitation and temperature. The response of phytophagous and predatory beetles to the change of precipitation and temperature were more sensitive than those of beetles of saprophagy, the response of large beetles to the change of precipitation were more sensitive than those of medium and small beetles.Conclusion: The change of precipitation and temperature affect the activity rhythm of gobi ground-dwelling beetles, and the responses of different ground-dwelling beetle species to them are different due to their different physiological and ecological characteristics, which affect the dynamic changes of the ground-dwelling beetles communities.
Aims: Soil fauna as the key component of terrestrial ecosystems, playing an important role in decomposition of animal dung, mineralization of organic matter and turnover of soil nutrients. Many studies have been done on the soil fauna’s effects on plant litter’s decomposition. Still, less information is available on their impact on the decomposition of animal dung. Methods: Here we conducted a field experiment in a temperate semi-arid steppe ecosystem to investigate the effect of the different soil fauna groups with different body sizes on the decomposition of horse and cattle dung pats on the soil surface over a one-year period. The experiment had five treatments: CK, soil only, no dung nor soil fauna; T0, dung pat covered with a wire-mesh-cage of 0.425 mm holes (excluding dung beetles and soil meso-fauna); T1, dung pat covered with a wire-mesh-cage of 1 mm holes (excluding dung beetles); T2, dung pat covered with a wire-mesh-cage of 2 mm holes (excluding tunneler dung beetle); T3, exposed dung (with no exclusion of soil fauna).Results: We found that (1) compared with dung only (excluding dung beetles and soil meso-fauna) treatment (T0), the presence of soil fauna (T1, T2 and T3) did not enhance the dry mass loss of livestock dung during the first 60 days of the experiment; in contrast, in the presence of all soil fauna (T3) significantly increased the dry mass loss of cattle dung but decreased that of horse dung at the end of the experiment (at day 360). (2) Soil fauna also enhanced the decline rate of carbon and nitrogen content in dung during the first 60 days of the experiment. (3) Dung addition increased the soil microbial respiration, and the increase was most obvious in the presence of soil fauna (T3) on days 15 and 30 of the experiment. (4) Compared to the soil with no dung (CK), the soil with horse dung had higher contents of soil available N, soil organic carbon and soil moisture, and the contents were higher in the presence of soil fauna (T2 and T3); whereas the soil with cattle dung had no changes.Conclusion: We conclude that the feeding and activities of dung beetle in the early stage of dung decomposition alter the physicochemical properties of dung, which indirectly affect the role of soil biota in the decomposition in the later stage.
Background: Research techniques in molecular biology, cell biology, microbiology and genetics have been accelerated by rapid development of modern genomic technologies. These advances have rapidly evolved the field of biodiversity research, once a branch of natural history focusing on morphology, into an integrated life science. Modern biodiversity studies can now investigate and link element of ecological systems, the species within them, and their genetic diversity. DNA related technologies, among other omics techniques, have continued to develop and launch new sequencing platforms, leading to a reduction of DNA sequencing costs that has already outstripped Moore’s Law, which also facilitates a series of breakthroughs in the research fields of biodiversity. Prospects: Here, we introduce emerging trends in DNA-based omics techniques applied in biodiversity research, including species-level genomics as well as genetic diversity and community-levels species diversity. The former includes genomes obtained based on single individuals and genetic diversity of focal populations in both spatial and temporal dimensions, while the latter includes molecular identification approaches, such as metabarcoding, eDNA, iDNA etc. These new methods can be applied in biodiversity estimation for various communities, as well as in monitoring and conservation of flagship species and interspecific interactions.
Background & Aims: We reviewed progress on insect biodiversity research over the past 30 years and further analyzed the trends, focusing on varied study systems (e.g. forest, grassland and agriculture etc.) and important functional insect groups, such as pollinators, herbivores and predators. Progresses: Declines of insect abundance and diversity are being reported worldwide. Anthropogenic disturbance, climate change, and other factors contribute to this crisis. Strategies & Prospects: Studies of insect biodiversity have expanded from early comparisons of species richness on composition to multiple dimensions of diversity. Current studies include both in-depth work on morphological diversity and much deeper consideration of genetic, phylogenetic, and functional diversity. Moreover, the studies’ scale has expanded from local to global. The development of morphometrics and phylogenetic bioinformatics further contributes to understanding evolution and global patterns in diversity. We also need to pay more attention to topics on integrative taxonomy on functional insect groups, functional diversity, insect diversity within canopy, and species interaction networks.
Background: Bio-inventory practices, including discovering and describing species, establishing reliable biological classification systems, compiling authoritative and timely species catalogues, and digitizing and sharing biodiversity information, are of great significance for biodiversity studies, biodiversity resource management, science-based policy-making, and social and economic development.Review results: In this article, based on a comprehensive review on literature and public databases, we summarize the progress of bio-inventory work on vertebrates, insects and other invertebrates, plants, and fungi in China in recent years. We also share perspectives for future bio-inventory work. Available data show that in China there are at least 698 recorded mammal species, 1,450 bird species, 586 reptile species, 611 amphibian species, 1,591 freshwater fish species, 38,493 higher plant species (including 35,379 vascular plant species), and about 27,900 fungi species, but there are no species catalogues for all Chinese insects and other invertebrates. In the last decade, 5 new families, 86 new genera, 2,090 new species and 374 new records of vascular plants, and 4,679 new fungi species belonging to 36 classes, 140 orders, 438 families and 1,372 genera, have been reported in China.Perspectives: Bio-inventory is growing in importance at the global and regional levels, and encouraging progress has been made in this field in China. However, new species descriptions for invertebrates and fungi, catalogues of many organismal groups, and digitization and integration of biodiversity information are especially needed in future research.
Aim: Light pollution is considered as an “environmental trap” that can attract insects from surrounding areas. Increased availability of insects and the presence of light itself may attract predators to colonize and nests near to the artificial lights, potentially altering insect diversity and ecosystem services. Ants (Formicidae: Hymenoptera) are one of the dominant predatory insects, and many cavity-dwelling ants use hollow branches or bamboo to build nests and reproduction. Despite their significance in predation and other ecosystem functions, the effects of light pollution on nesting ant communities remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of light-emitting diodes (LED) on nesting patterns and community composition in three different habitats (primary forest, secondary forest, and rubber plantation) in rainy and dry seasons.
Methods: In total, 15 LED lights were installed across three habitats, and artificial bamboo nests with different entrance sizes were set at 0 m, 10 m, 50 m, and 100 m away from the light source. Bamboo nests were left for seven weeks.
Results: We found 12 ant genera with 40 morphospecies in bamboo nests, among which Camponotus was the dominant genus. Our results reveal that areas immediately adjacent to the light source increased the occupancy rate but this was only evident in dry season. The occupancy rate remained low across distances away from the light (10-100 m). The same pattern was found across the three different habitats. The community composition of ants was significantly different between the seasons, but was marginally significant among the three habitats in the dry season only. Community composition did not change with the distance from the light source. Entrance size had no significant effect on bamboo nest occupancy.
Conclusion: Our study shows that light pollution attracted nesting ants and altered their spatial distribution which may result in modified ecosystem functions near the artificial lights.
Aims: This study aims to review and update information from 2021 about newly described taxa of Chinese Hemiptera and 28 other insect orders (all orders except Coleoptera, Diptera, Lepidoptera, and Hymenoptera).
Methods: We reviewed the literature on new taxa of Chinese Hemiptera and 28 other insect orders described in 2021 and compiled a list of type specimens and a bibliography. We characterized the hotspots for new species discovery by analyzing provincial administrative regions and at the spatial scale of 200 km × 200 km, respectively. We also examined the specimen preservation sites, the authorship of new species descriptions, and the journals where the work was published.
Results: In 2021, 422 new taxa—including 35 new genera, 386 new species, and 1 new subspecies—were described in Chinese Hemiptera and 28 other insect orders. The hotspots for new species discovery were mainly in Southwest China (Yunnan, Guizhou, Sichuan, etc.) and the adjacent areas (Guangxi, Xizang, etc.). And at the spatial scale of 200 km × 200 km, the hotspots are mainly located in mountainous regions. Three hundred ninety-five researchers participated in the naming and description of new taxa this year, and related works were published in 28 journals, with a total of 205 articles.
Conclusion: This timely study updates basic biodiversity data about Chinese insects in Hemiptera and 28 other insect orders. This work plays an essential role in accelerating the construction of a data-sharing platform, supporting biodiversity conservation and management, and ensuring national biosecurity.
Aims: Coleoptera is the largest group of insects. The aim of this study is to summarize the new taxa and taxonomic changes of Coleoptera from the world in 2021, and sort out the new species and new records in China separately.
Methods: By searching the online databases and some papers from peer experts, 1,114 journal publications related to the new taxa and taxonomic changes of Coleoptera from the world were obtained and analyzed.
Results: Totally, 3,375 new taxa of Coleoptera from the world were reported in 2021, including 2 new subfamilies, 1 new supertribe, 9 new tribes, 3 new subtribes, 178 new genera, 36 new subgenera, 3,070 new species and 76 new subspecies. In addition, 1,071 new combinations, 485 new synonyms, 70 upgradations and 26 degradations were provided. There are 534 new staphylinids and 461 new scarabaeids, accounting for about 31.6% of the total species. China with the largest number of Coleoptera new species founded in the world, and it has published 13 new genera, 4 new subgenera, 635 new species, 6 new subspecies and 2 newly recorded subfamily, 13 newly recorded genera, 1 new recorded subgenera, 112 newly recorded species, 6 newly recorded subspecies in 2021. There are 204 new species of Coleoptera in China published in 2021 belong to Scarabaeidae, and Yunnan is the region with the highest number of new species discovered, with 172 new species reported.
Conclusion: Summarizing and sorting out taxonomic information timely has an important impact on guiding taxonomic research.
Aims: Diptera is one of the most diverse insect groups in the world with the high economic and ecological significance. The aim of this study was to summarize the new taxa of Diptera from China published in 2021.
Methods: In this study, the taxonomic literature of Diptera from China published in 2021 were systematically collected and analyzed.
Results: In 2021, a total of 136 new taxa of Diptera from China were published, including 1 new genus and 135 new species. There are 41 new taxa recorded from China for the first time. All the new species and new records belong to 27 families. The taxa of greatest attention included Drosophilidae, Empididae, Chironomidae and Tipulidae by covering about 1/2 of 135 new species published in 2021, and 23 Chinese provincial-level administration areas contributed to new taxa and records. The number of new species from Yunnan was significantly higher than that in other regions, accounting for 1/3 of the total number of new species published in China. The 177 new taxa described this year were contributed by 150 authors, and totally 70 articles were published. Zootaxa, ZooKeys and Entomotaxonomia were the main publication journals for these descriptions.
Conclusion: In 2021, significant progress has been made in Diptera from China, while the research level of different areas and groups are still uneven, and more attention and support are needed in the future.
Aim: Lepidoptera is one of the largest orders in Insecta. It is of high economic importance, as many Lepidopteran pest species occur all over the world. China crosses the Palaearctic and the Oriental regions and has many new species described each year, making it one of the most biodiverse countries in the world. The aim of this study is to summarize the new taxa of Lepidoptera from China reported in 2021.
Methods: Information regarding new species, newly recorded species, new synonyms and combinations were collected from related taxonomic journals. In total, 104 articles and 1 monograph were selected, based on which the scientific names, the type localities, and the other relevant information were sorted out. The new taxa of the Chinese Lepidoptera published by domestic and foreign researchers in 2021 were summarized.
Results: A total of 230 new taxa were recorded, including 7 new genera, 215 new species, 8 new subspecies, and 78 newly recorded species (including 2 subspecies) for China. Additionally, 31 new combinations, 4 new synonyms and 2 new replacement names were proposed. All of the new species and subspecies belong to 34 families of Lepidoptera.
Conclusions: The number of new species and newly recorded species published in Yunnan Province in 2021 was significantly higher than that in other regions of China, accounting for 36.8% and 39.7% of the total published new species and newly recorded species in China, respectively. All the data show that the published new species and newly recorded species collected from southern China in 2021 are still significantly higher than those collected from northern China.
Aim: The aim of this study is to catalogue and summarize new taxa of the order Hymenoptera published in 2021.
Methods: In 2021, 355 journal publications on new taxa in the order Hymenoptera were obtained and analyzed by researching the available zoological databases.
Results: Based on the collected journal publications, there were 1,152 records on the new taxa of Hymenoptera for 66 families and 416 genera in 21 superfamilies, including 5 new families, 4 subfamilies, 83 new genera, 3 subgenera, 1,054 new species, and 3 new subspecies. A total of 980 extant hymenopterans from 52 families and 332 genera in 18 superfamilies were recorded in 309 of the 355 journal publications, including 2 new families, 26 new genera, 3 new subgenera, 946 new species, and 3 new subspecies. Another 46 journal publications on fossil Hymenoptera recorded 172 extinct Hymenoptera from 27 families and 86 genera in 14 superfamilies, including 3 new families, 4 new subfamilies, 57 new genera, and 108 new species. In 2021, 235 new taxa from 34 families and 91 genera in 17 superfamilies were recorded in 83 of the 309 relevant journal publications in China. These include 3 new genera (1 extinct) and 232 new species (2 extinct). The above 2 new extant genera were described from Taiwan and Zhejiang, China. The five Chinese provinces with the most new species published in 2021 are Yunnan, Zhejiang, Fujian, Xizang, and Xinjiang. Based on the publications in 2021, Ichneumonoidea was the superfamily with the highest number of new species, accounting for 32.5% (307/946), 19.4% (21/108), and 37.0% (85/230) of the extant, extinct, and Chinese new species in the Hymenoptera database, respectively. Grouping the extant Hymenoptera new species by continental regions and subregions shows that 56.9% (538) of the new species were discovered in Asia, 28.6% (271) in East Asia and 24.3% (230) in China, which tops the list of regions, subregions, and countries with the most new species. Of the 355 publications in 76 journals, 348 were published in English, 4 in Chinese, and 3 in French.
Conclusion: These results indicate that the taxonomy of Hymenoptera in China plays an important positive role in expanding our understanding of the order Hymenoptera around the world.
The complete mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) have been widely used in the studies of molecular evolution, genomics and phylogeny. Aphids are important agricultural and forestry pests. Considering the reported complete mitogenomes of aphids are still limited, it will be of great value to obtain more aphid mitogenome data for related researches. This paper reports the complete mitogenome sequences of three aphid species, Greenidea ficicola, Aphis aurantii and Mindarus keteleerifoliae. The data of their detailed annotation, their gene sequence and gene structure, and the codon usage are also presented. These data can benefit future researches such as insect phylogenetic relationships, population divergence patterns as well as insect pest control.
Aims: The Yarlung Zangbo River basin supports rich and unique biological resources, which makes it a global biodiversity hotspot. However, surveys on benthic macroinvertebrates in this river basin are far from sufficient. To fill this gap, this study focused on the middle and lower reaches of the Yarlung Zangbo River, where macroinvertebrates were sampled from the main stream and tributaries in autumn (October 2015) and spring (March 2016). Methods: One-way ANOVA was used to examine the differences of abundance, biomass and ecological indices between the main stream and tributaries. Canonical analysis of principal coordinates (CAP) was adopted to test if community structures varied among different site groups. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) was Applied to identify the key environmental factors that significantly influence the community structure of macroinvertebrates during each season. Results: A total of 270 species were identified, belonging to 5 phyla 8 classes 20 orders and 92 families. The community included 246 aquatic insects, 14 oligochaetes, 4 mollusks and 6 others. The average density was 939.1 ind./m2, and the average biomass was 5.44 g/m2. 184 and 214 macroinvertebrate species were collected in spring and autumn, respectively. The dominant species were aquatic insects that preferred clean and cold water, including Baetis sp., Baetiella sp., Simulium sp., Micropsetra sp. and Brachycentrus sp. The community structure, density and diversity indices exhibited significant temporal and spatial variation, and the diversity in tributaries was significantly higher than that of the main stream. CCA analysis indicated that environmental factors including altitude, velocity, river width and substrate types were key factors structuring the benthic community in the Yarlung Zangbo River. Conclusion: The variation in community structure and diversity pattern were mainly derived from the variable climate types and geological barriers in the Grand Canyon area. This study can provide important basis and reference for macroinvertebrate diversity assessments and environmental monitoring in the Yarlung Zangbo River basin.
Aims: Species respond to environmental changes through functional traits. Exploring the elevational pattern of community functional trait diversity is an important aspect in understanding the spatial distribution and formation mechanisms of biodiversity. Climate change and land use are important factors that affect stream ecosystems, their biodiversity, and community assembly. However, there is still a lack of systematic studies on the elevational distribution of functional trait diversity of aquatic insect assemblage under the effects of climate and land use variables.
Methods: We collected aquatic insect community data from 56 stream sites along elevational gradients ranging between 1,000-3,000 m in 2016 and 2018 in the middle of the Lancang River Basin, Yunnan Province, China. We then utilized a linear or quadratic regression model to explore and compare the elevational patterns of life history (voltinism, development, and adult life span) and ecological traits (trophic habit, habit, and thermal preference) diversity indices. Then, we used random forest model to analyze the effects of climatic and land use variables on the diversity of life history and ecological traits of aquatic insect assemblages.
Results: Of all life history traits, diversity of semivoltine, nonseasonal, slow seasonal, and long adult life span demonstrated significantly U-shaped elevational patterns. While diversity of fast seasonal, and very short adult life span exhibited significantly hump-shaped elevational patterns, and short adult life span diversity demonstrated a significantly increasing elevational pattern. Of all ecological traits, thermal preference diversity displayed no significant pattern along the elevation gradient. Diversity of clinger and sprawler exhibited a significantly increasing pattern and a U-shaped elevational pattern, while diversity of collector-filter, herbivore, and predator exhibited significantly increasing, decreasing, and U-shaped elevational patterns, respectively. Random forest models revealed that variation of life history trait diversity explained by climate and land use variables were higher than that in ecological trait diversity, with annual mean temperature and percentage of agriculture area as common key factors.
Conclusion: In summary, the elevational patterns of functional trait diversity in aquatic insect assemblage differed between life history and ecological trait diversity, in which differences are driven by different natural and human disturbance gradients. These results can provide theoretical supports for aquatic biodiversity maintenance and conservation in the Lancang River Basin.
Aims: Diverse inflorescence forms, pollination strategies, and widespread deceptive pollination make the Araceae family a suitable research subject for plant-pollinator interactions and the effects of floral divergence. Elucidation of flower diversity and pollination strategy in Araceae by the previous studies enhanced our understanding in floral divergence making a firm foundation for this study. The present review aims to summarize the main types of inflorescence structure, spathe forms, pollination strategies, and their relationship in the plants of the family Araceae.
Progresses: There are four main types of spathes in Araceae: unmodified spathe, expanded planar spathe, erect broad spathe, and erect narrow spathe; demonstrating an evolutionary trend from simple planar structures to complex three- dimensional wrapped spathe structures. There are three types of spadix with the evolutionary route from bisexual flowering inflorescence to monoecious inflorescence, and to diecious inflorescence. The Araceae exhibits five major pollination strategies: food-rewards mutualistic pollination, odor-attracting deceptive pollination, mating sites mutualistic pollination, oviposition-attracting mutualistic pollination, and lethal trap deceptive pollination. The main types of pollinators include: Diptera, Coleoptera, and Hymenoptera. Plants in the Araceae family attract pollinators by their unique shapes, colors, stripes, heat of the inflorescences, and most importantly floral scent. We comprehensively discussed the function of volatile organic compounds, among the most important volatiles being dimethyl sulfide, methyl indole compounds, terpenoids and benzene compounds that attract coleopteran beetles and Diptera to pollinate by simulating food or brood-site signals.
Prospects: Further study on the evolutionary ecology and developmental biology of Araceae is expected to provide reasonable explanation for maintenance and evolution of deceptive plant-pollinator relationships. Studies should increasingly focus on exploring the pattern of volatiles variation in species differentiation and the physiological relationship between volatiles and pollinators. Uncovering the complex relationships between floral diversity and pollination strategy in this family will greatly improve our understanding in its floral divergence and expand our knowledge in evolution of flower diversity in angiosperms.
Aims We studied following field based on Chinese Orthoptera holotype information: (1) species composition of Orthoptera in China; (2) the preservation of Orthoptera holotype; (3) the regularity of the discovery of new species over time; (4) geographical distribution of holotype specimens.
Methods The information of holotypes is mainly obtained from the Orthoptera Specifications File (OSF), Catalogue of the Insect Type Specimens Deposited in China.
Results (1) There are 3,070 holotype specimens, which is more than 10% of the known species in the world. They belong to 2 suborders, 11 superfamilies, 20 families, 58 subfamilies and 594 genera. (2) 3,044 holotype specimens with specimen preservation sites are deposited in 16 countries in the world. Among them, 2,705 holotype specimens are deposited in China, involving 44 scientific research institutions. (3) According to the variation of the number of new species described each year, the publishing process has three stages: stagnation period, fluctuating growth period and rapid growth period. The number of new species described shows a significant upward trend in recent years. (4) The number of holotype specimens collected from each province is significantly different. The new species of Orthoptera were mainly found in the areas with mountains and hills.
Conclusion The Orthoptera holotype specimens are mostly deposited in Chinese universities and research institutions. At present, many new Orthoptera species have being published every year, and the total number of Chinese Orthoptera species has a lot of room for growth. We suggest that government should increase the support for traditional taxonomy and training of young taxonomists.
AimsColeoptera is the largest group on the land, with extremely rich species diversity and morphological diversity, and plays an important role in terrestrial ecosystems and is closely related to human social production. Regularly summarizing the new taxa of the Coleoptera in the world will help disseminate recent achievements in the field of taxonomy and provide a valuable resource for the beetle diversity, so as to promote the development and protection of Coleoptera resources.
MethodIn this study, we systematically collected and analyzed the taxonomic literature of Coleoptera published in 2020 from around the world.
Results In 2020, a total of 3,228 new taxa of Coleoptera in the world were published, including 1 new family, 5 new subfamilies, 13 new tribes, 218 new genera, 18 new subgenera, 2,973 new species. In addition, this paper also collected 1,319 new combinations, 610 new synonyms, 49 degraded taxa and 61 raised taxa. The most studied taxa included Staphylinidae, Carabidae, Curculionidae, Cerambycidae, etc. The new species of Coleoptera in 2020 were reported from 118 countries and regions, with most discoveries being concentrated in China, Brazil, Mexico, Ecuador, Indonesia, Australia, Vietnam, etc. These new findings were reported in 995 articles or monographs from 141 journals or publishers.
Conclusion In 2020, there was significant progress in global beetle taxonomy, while the discovery rate of new species is slightly slower than the average rate between 1978 and 2000 and the regional bias is occurred. It is crucial to increase the investment on taxonomy and explore more efficient and accurate methods to access and protect the global biodiversity thoroughly.
Aim Our aim is to clarify the relationship between diversity and community structure of flower-visiting insects and their habitat type, disturbance degree, and altitude in the Yanshan area.
Methods Throughout July-August of 2019 and 2020, we collected flower-visiting insects in five habitats, including wetland, forest, shrub, grassland and farmland, with different gradients of 0-1,200 m above the sea level by using the method of transects and light lures.
Result A total of 1,306 flower-visiting insects were collected, belonging to 153 species, 44 families, and 7 orders, among which Lepidoptera had the largest number of species and Hemiptera had the largest number of individuals. The diversity of flower-visiting insects is highest in the shrub cluster. The Shannon-Wiener, Margalef, and Simpson indices are the highest in the middle and low altitudes of 200-400 m. The results of bivariate regression indicate that the Shannon-Wiener and Margalef indices are positively correlated with precipitation in the warmest season and annual precipitation respectively (P< 0.05). Redundancy analysis (RDA) demonstrated that environmental factors significantly affected the diversity of flower-visiting insects, but there was some variation among different measures. Temperature and humidity are positively correlated with the Pielou index and negatively correlated with the Shannon-Wiener, Margalef, and Simpson indices. The results further indicate that scientific management of husbandry activities is the key to protecting the diversity of flower-visiting insects.
Conclusion Scientific management of husbandry activities is the key to protecting the diversity of flower-visiting insects.
Aims Termites are common forest insects in subtropical forests, however, little attention has been paid to their damage on forests or contribution to soil carbon cycles through their effect on litter and wood decomposition in plantations and secondary forests in subtropical zones. Here, we investigated the range of termite activities in three typical types of forests in subtropical regions, i.e., Cunninghamia lanceolataplantation, Castanopsis carlesii plantation, and C. carlesiisecondary forest.
Methods We surveyed the foraging height and area of termite activities on tree stems in the three forest types to assess the effects of termite damage. We also investigated litter layer characteristics and the degree to which it was affected by termites to evaluate the role of termites in litter decomposition.
Results We found that: (1) termite activities are common in three forest types, while higher foraging preference occurred in plantations than in secondary forests; (2) the foraging area in stems of Castanopsis carlesiisecondary forests was only 1.65% and 0.59‰ of those in Castanopsis carlesii and Cunninghamia lanceolataplantations, respectively, with preference of termites on tree stems in Cunninghamia lanceolatacompared with Castanopsis carlesiiplantations; (3) the foraging area and height of termites in Cunninghamia lanceolataplantation are 27.7 and 9.2 times of those in Castanopsis carlesiiplantation, and the rate of the affected area of 0-50, 50-100, 100-150, 150-200 cm tree stem is 4 : 3 : 2 : 1 in Cunninghamia lanceolata, respectively, but are 99 : 1 in the 1 m height stem of Castanopsis carlesii; (4) termite activities were widely found in foliar litter as well as dead and fallen wood in all secondary forests and plantations, indicating an important role in the process of decomposition.
Conclusion Our results indicate that termites may have higher effects on plantations than secondary forests and have negative effects in damaging tree stems. Termites also likely promote the decomposition of foliar litter and dead wood in secondary forest. These results will provide theoretical support for the management of Cunninghamia lanceolata plantations in the mid-subtropical zone.
Aims: Organic planting is widely considered an environment-friendly agricultural management pattern that plays a crucial role in the protection of agricultural biodiversity. The change of arthropod biodiversity is proposed as a key ecological indicator for agricultural sustainability. However, the effects of organic planting on arthropod biodiversity remain inconsistent in published studies, which may have resulted from the durations of organic planting, land use and cropping systems across the individual studies. The diverse results from previous studies could weaken the practicability of their conclusions in policymaking, which highlighted the necessity of conducting a meta-analysis to provide a generalized understanding of the effects of organic planting on arthropod diversity. This study aims to quantify the impact of organic planting on arthropod biodiversity using meta-analysis and provide scientific support for the formulation of ecological compensation policy under organic planting.
Methods: This meta-analysis conducted a literature review of peer-reviewed papers published before the end of 2020 which compared the impacts of organic and conventional planting on arthropod biodiversity. The results from 75 experimental sites, which contained 227 paired valid datasets, were selected for our analysis. To distinguish between the sources of variation for the responses of biodiversity to organic planting, the paired measurements were further subdivided into subgroups according to the factors of duration, land use, crop variety, pesticide application frequency in conventional planting, and arthropod functional groups.
Results: The results showed that compared with conventional planting, organic planting significantly improved the richness, abundance, and evenness of arthropods by the rate of 34.95%, 64.95%, and 12.09%, respectively. The abundance of the natural enemies of arthropods increased by 71.80% (P < 0.05) while the abundance of pests decreased by 10.46% under organic planting. The richness of the natural enemies and pests under organic planting were both increased by 22.50% and 31.03% respectively, relative to conventional planting (P < 0.05). The application of pesticides significantly decreased the arthropod biodiversity in conventional planting. Compared with the organic planting, an increase in the time of pesticide application in the conventional planting lead to decreases in the arthropod richness and evenness of arthropods by 13.54% and 2.64%, respectively. The responses of arthropod richness and abundance to organic planting were significantly positive when the duration was equal to or exceeded three years. The positive effect of organic planting on arthropod abundance in paddy fields was 4.7 times higher than that in dryland (P < 0.05), but the responses of richness and evenness to organic planting were comparable between paddy and dryland (P > 0.05). The responses of arthropod richness, abundance, and evenness to organic planting under the vegetable system were 81.46%, 74.14%, and 18.55%, respectively (P < 0.05); and under the tea-planting system were 48.86%, 49.06%, 30.88% (P < 0.05), respectively. The benefits of organic planting on arthropod biodiversity under the cropping systems of vegetable and tea were demonstrated to be more significant than that under other cropping systems.
Conclusions: Our meta-analysis suggests that organic planting plays an important role in protecting and improving biodiversity in croplands by increasing the abundance of natural enemies and decreasing pests abundance. The frequency of pesticide application was observed to be the key factor which significantly regulates the change of arthropod biodiversity. To promote the positive effects of organic planting on the protection of biodiversity in cropland, policymakers should not only to encourage the implementation of organic planting in regions where necessary conditions are satisfied, but also facilitate the ecological innovation of conventional planting by introducing the principles, concepts, and technologies of organic planting into conventional planting. This will be of more practical significance to agricultural biodiversity conservation in China.
Aims: The standardization of acquisition methods to collect insect specimens is a major component of insect diversity research. In light of the high species diversity, complex behavior, and wide distribution of insects, numerous active and passive acquisition methods have been developed to achieve different research goals. However, the use of active search acquisition methods is constrained by the presence of many interfering factors and poor reproducibility. Passive acquisition methods, such as flight interception trap (FIT), Malaise trap (MT) and pitfall trap (PT), have been widely adopted in different scenarios and have gradually become the most common methods for conducting insect diversity research due to their unique advantages. Despite their popularity, however, there is a lack of systematic research on the features and collecting effectiveness of these passive acquisition methods. Methods: In this study, 13 sampling points in Shing Mun from Hong Kong, China were monitored in a one-month field survey (sampling frequency of about 2-3 days) using the three passive acquisition methods above (156 sets of equipment in total). These surveys were evaluated to determine each method's effectiveness for the beetle collection. Results: A total of 6,380 beetle specimens of 197 species from 40 families were collected. The results of the study showed that: (1) There is a difference in the effectiveness of beetle collection by each acquisition method. Overall, FIT (36 families, 149 species) was more effective than MT (24 families, 79 species) and PT (17 families, 60 species). Ten families were collected by all the three methods. (2) The analysis of biodiversity indices and species-abundance distribution indicate the following: The richness index was the highest for FIT, followed by MT and PT. The dominance index was the highest for FIT, followed by PT and MT. The diversity index was the highest for MT, followed by FIT and PT. The evenness index was the highest for MT, followed by PT and FIT. The number of species with at least one individual collected by the three acquisition methods was very high. The species with more than one individual collected were widely distributed in time and space. There were fewer species from dominant families, though the total of individuals from these species accounted for a high proportion of all the collected beetles. (3) In terms of feeding habits, both FIT and PT enabled the collection of beetles from six dietary types. Among these, the algae-feeding family Ptiliidae was only collected by these two methods. (4) The plotted species accumulation curve demonstrated increased species discovery in a step-wise manner with gradually deceleration, which reflects the effectiveness of the three methods. Conclusions: Each of the three acquisition methods have unique characteristics, but the comprehensive collection efficiency of FIT was markedly higher than MT and PT. Compared with PT, one of the most used acquisition methods, FIT and MT could enhance the coverage of species-richness, feeding habit, and body size of the beetles collected. This combination of collection methods would be conducive to better understand baseline beetle diversity and to conduct in-depth studies on the ecological functions and interactions of different groups. Furthermore, the beetles collected by each of the three methods were different to some extent, and thus a study's acquisition method should be selected according to the research goal and scientific problem to be addressed.
It is important to quantitatively assess the relationship between insect diversity and the environment by laying long-term sample plots at a global scale. Consequently, the SITE100 International Science Project was proposed. The project plans to select 100 large sites around the world and use three types of data collection methods, namely, flight interception trap (FIT), Malaise trap (MT), and pitfall trap (PT). The global insect diversity pattern is explored from three dimensions: species diversity, morphological diversity and genetic diversity. Huaping, Guangxi was selected as one of the 100 sites to explore the origin of global insect diversity and its relationship with the environment through long-term monitoring and cross-regional large-scale comparison. In this study, the data set of beetles collected from the Huaping site during 2020 growing season lasted 7 months (2020.05.09-2020.11.23), covering 10 sites. Each site contained one FIT, one MT and 10 PT. All sites were visited once a week on average. A total of 8,914 beetles were collected during the study period. 563 morphological species from 57 families were identified. The data set consists of four parts. The first part is the original photos of all beetle specimens obtained from all traps at various collection points, with a total of 644 photos. After compression, the file name is Photo-1.zip. The second part is the photos of beetles grouped by morphological species. After compression, the file name is Photo-2.zip. The third part is the statistics of each beetle specimen: the collection method, and the longitude, latitude, and altitude of its sampling point. The file name for this data set is data-1.zip. The fourth part is detailed identification information of the morphological species of each specimen. The file name is data-2.zip. In addition to joint analysis with the results from other SITE100 sites, this data set can also be used to analyze and compare the distribution and morphological differences of beetle taxa in different habitats. The images of some taxa can provide data support for subsequent geometric morphometrics or morphological studies. This dataset is the first quantitative assessment of beetle diversity in Huaping, and is of great significance in enriching biodiversity background data in China and understanding the origin of insect fauna in southern China.
The gradual loss of global biodiversity has become one of the most serious environmental problems. It is an important scientific issue in the fields of ecology and biogeography to examine the resources available to study biodiversity and the underlying mechanisms of biodiversity loss. The integration and publication of biodiversity data would be a helpful foundation for related research. For example, insects are the most diverse group of organisms on earth, but there is a relative lack of relevant research due to the absence of collation of insect diversity data. This study selected the Hemiptera, an important and diverse group in the class Insecta, in order to promote the development of collection and distribution of insect diversity data. Through extensive retrieval and collection, we systematically collated the diversity and geographical distributions of hemipteran insects in China up to 2017. The dataset covers 7,822 hemipteran species belonging to 2,090 genera and 102 families, and 39,298 records of geographical distributions. The dataset can help the future researches on biodiversity patterns, biota evolution and pest control.
Aims: This study aims to summarize the new taxa of Chinese Hemiptera and 28 other orders of Insecta (i.e., orders other than Coleoptera, Diptera, Lepidoptera, and Hymenoptera) in 2020.
Methods: We collected information about newly described taxa, including new genera, species, and subspecies for Chinese Hemiptera and 28 other insect orders in 2020 by searching journals and the Zoological Record database. Based on the described taxa and published literature, we compiled a catalogue of type specimens and a bibliography for new species of Chinese Hemiptera and other insects described in 2020. We also analyzed the biodiversity information provided by type specimens, such as authors, locations, and preservation sites.
Results: In 2020, a total of 349 new taxa, including 35 new genera, 311 new species, and 3 new subspecies, were described in Chinese Hemiptera and 28 other insect orders. The hotspots for the new species described were in Southwest China and the adjacent areas. Additionally, there are as many as 69 institutions that are designated for the deposition of type specimens; within these, the holotype was primarily collected in domestic collection institutions. In contrast, there were relatively few type specimens collected by foreign institutions, and those collected were mainly paratypes. The 349 new taxa described this year were contributed by 356 authors, and a total of 182 articles were published. Zootaxa and ZooKeys were the main publication journals for these descriptions.
Conclusion: This study provides baseline data for further in-depth studies in the temporal and spatial patterns of species evolution and biodiversity protection in China. Moreover, in the face of today's rapidly declining biodiversity, we should accelerate the construction of data platforms and the integration of diverse information sources to strengthen the biodiversity research and protection.
Aims: Coleoptera are the most diverse of all insect orders, exhibiting high economic and ecological significance. The aim of this study is to grasp the situation of new taxa and name changes of Coleoptera from China published in 2020.
Methods: In this study, 198 articles published in 2020 were utilized to form an annual taxonomic report outlining new taxa and name changes of Chinese Coleoptera.
Results: A total of 421 new taxa of Chinese Coleoptera were published in 2020, including 21 new genera, 2 new subgenera, 387 new species, and 11 new subspecies. At the Chinese national level, 51 new taxa were recorded. In addition, 56 new combinations, 70 synonyms, 7 restorations and 3 degradations were provided. The taxa of greatest attention included Carabidae, Staphylinidae, Tenebrionidae, Cerambycidae and Curculionidae. 33 Chinese provincial-level administration areas contributed to new taxa and records, with most discoveries being concentrated in Yunnan and Sichuan provinces.
Conclusion: It is crucial that taxonomic information is regularly updated, digitized, and made available to researchers to promote the dissemination of recent research results and reflect the most current state of scientific knowledge.
Aims:In order to outline the contributions and advances of Diptera taxonomy in China in 2020, we summarize the detailed information of the new taxa, species distribution, and publication cases.
Methods: Potential source articles were searched and identified from online resources. The Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, Web of Science, Elsevier, Springer, and other related academic literature index databases were searched.
Results: Totally three new genera and 113 new species of Diptera were reported from China in 2020. We ranked the publications from different perspectives: the most newly described taxa were found in Drosophilidae (31 new species), Lauxaniidae (17 new species), and Chironomidae (17 new species); the regions with the greatest number of new taxa were Yunnan (43 new species), Xizang (19 new species or genera) and Sichuan (17 new species or genera); the journals with the most published new taxa are ZooKeys (30 new species or genera), Zootaxa (27 new species or genera) and Entomotaxonomia (22 new species or genera); The research groups that published the most new taxa are Hongwei Chen, Ding Yang, and Xinhua Wang.
Conclusion: Some progress has been made in the Chinese Diptera classification in 2020, however, gathering a deeper understanding of the dipteran taxonomy remains challenging due to the relatively short research history and insufficient and uneven research foundation. Diptera is a major order of insects, with about 150,000 described species and perhaps more than a quarter of a million species. According to our statistics, 113 new species were described in China last year, then it can be seen that the taxonomic research of Diptera in China has a long way to go. More professionals, more taxonomic group coverage, and wider international collaboration would contribute to the Chinese Diptera research to a higher level.
Aim: Lepidoptera is one of the largest orders in Insecta and is a group with high economic importance as many pest species of Lepidoptera occur all over the world. China is one of the most biodiverse countries in the world, as it ranges from the Palaearctic to Oriental Regions, and many species new to science are described each year. The aim of this study is to summarize the new taxa of Lepidoptera from China that were reported in 2020.
Methods: Information regarding new species, newly recorded species, and new synonyms and combinations were collected from several common journals of taxonomy and monographs. In total, 102 articles and 3 monographs are included in this report. From these sources, the scientific names, type localities, and the other relevant information have been summarized.
Results: The number of new taxa of Chinese Lepidoptera published by domestic and foreign researchers in 2020 has been summarized. In 2020, 196 new taxa of Lepidoptera were reported, including 1 new genus, 190 new species, 5 new subspecies, and 71 newly recorded species for China. Additionally, 55 new combinations and 11 new synonyms have been suggested. All of the new species and subspecies belong to 23 families.
Conclusions: The number of new species published in Hainan and Yunnan was significantly higher than that in other regions and accounted for two-fifths of the total number of new species published in China in 2020. Yunnan Province had the highest number of newly recorded species for a region in China and accounted for about half of the total number of newly recorded species in China. In general, the number of new species and newly recorded species collected in the south are significantly higher than those in north of China. Moreover, the discovery and description of all Lepidoptera species in China are far from completed, and further investigation of Lepidoptera in China is necessary.
Aim: The aim of this study is to summarize the new taxa and taxonomic changes of Hymenoptera from China published in 2020.
Method: Through searching the available zoological databases and collecting data from Chinese hymenopterists, in 2020, 104 journal publications and 1 monograph related to the new taxa and taxonomic changes of Hymenoptera from China were obtained and analyzed.
Results: Based on these publications, 469 records of new taxa, new records and taxonomic changes of Hymenoptera from China were retrieved, including 4 new genera (1 extinct genus), 1 new subgenus, 321 new species (10 extinct species), 8 new combinations, 22 new synonyms, 1 newly recorded subfamily, 18 newly recorded genera, 93 newly recorded species, and 1 replaced name. In 11 records of them, 3 superfamilies, 3 families and 5 genera of extinct hymenopteran were involved. Another 458 records belong to 11 superfamilies, 29 families, 170 genera of extant Hymenoptera, of which 40 genera distributed in 6 families are only related to new distribution records or taxonomic changes. Among these 11 superfamilies, 9 superfamilies with new species published in 2020 include Symphyta: Tenthredinoidea (23 new species); Aculeata of Apocrita: Apoidea (29 new species), Chrysidoidea (2 new species), and Vespoidea (20 new species); Parasitica of Apocrita: Chalcidoidea (23 new species), Cynipoidea (12 new species), Ichneumonoidea (206 new species), Platygastroidea (4 new species), Trigonalyoidea (2 new species).
Conclusions: Among the 9 superfamilies, Ichneumonoidea had the largest number (206) of new species by covering about 2/3 of 321 new species published in 2020. Five provinces with more new species published in 2020 are Yunnan, Zhejiang, Xizang, Fujian, and Liaoning, covering about 1/2 of the 321 new species. Moreover, the current status and future development of Hymenoptera taxonomy were discussed here based on these results.
Biodiversity Committee, CAS
Botanical Society of China
Institute of Botany, CAS
Institute of Zoology, CAS
Institute of Microbiology, CAS
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