Biodiv Sci ›› 2023, Vol. 31 ›› Issue (5): 22501.  DOI: 10.17520/biods.2022501

Special Issue: 昆虫多样性与生态功能 生物入侵

• Original Papers: Biosecurity and Nature Conservation • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Spatial pattern and driving factors on the prevalence of red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta) in island cities: A case study of Haitan Island, Fujian

Hong Chen1, Xiaoqing Xian2, Yixue Chen3, Na Lin1, Miaomiao Wang1, Zhipeng Li1, Jian Zhao1,*()   

  1. 1. Institute of Digital Agriculture Research, Fujian Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Fuzhou 350001
    2. Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100193
    3. Agricultural and Rural Development Service Center of Pingtan Comprehensive Experimental Area, Pingtan, Fujian 350400
  • Received:2022-08-30 Accepted:2022-12-08 Online:2023-05-20 Published:2023-05-19
  • Contact: * E-mail:


Aims: The red imported fire ant (RIFA), Solenopsis invicta, is one of the world’s worst invasive species, both environmentally and ecologically. In this study, we aim to analyze the spatial pattern of RIFA and the interactive mechanism of driving factors of its population density in island cities.
Methods: We used the Haitan Island as an example, the biggest island in Fujian Province, to analyze the spatial pattern of RIFA populations using Kernel density estimation and spatial autocorrelation models. We also used geographical detector to elucidate the individual and interactive effects of both environmental factors (8 types) and socio-economic factors (10 types) on RIFA prevalence.
Results: The spatial density of RIFA populations in the study area was characterized by uneven distribution, with the highest population density occurring in farmland (high-high aggregation), followed by landscaping and greening land (high-low and low-low aggregation), and the lowest density around residential areas. There were positive spatial autocorrelations within the population range. The q value for the interpretation of 18 impact factors on the spatial differentiation ranged from 0.014 to 0.278. Overall, there were differences between the effects of the two types of factors on RIFA occurrence, and the mean q value of the socio-economic factors were higher than those of the environmental factors. The socio-economic factors that had the greatest impact on RIFA occurrence were rural population size (q = 0.278) and township area (q = 0.268). The soil classification (q = 0.172) and average annual precipitation (q = 0.149) were stronger than other environmental factors. The interaction between township area and distance to nearby scenic spot, and average annual precipitation and distance to nearby scenic spot, had the greatest impact on the occurance of RIFA (q = 0.466). The combined effect of environmental and socio-economic factors positively enhanced the occurance of RIFA.
Conclusion: Our study indicates that agricultural cultivation, seedling introduction in urban greening construction, and transportation significantly affect the spatial pattern of RIFA prevalence in island cities. As far as its prevention and control strategy is concerned, we should not only implement strict plant quarantine regulations on imported seedlings and cargo, but also take locally-appropriate measures to effectively reduce the population size and prevent the spread of RIFA.

Key words: Solenopsis invicta, island cities, spatial pattern, geographic detector, Haitan Island