生物多样性 ›› 2011, Vol. 19 ›› Issue (1): 34-40.DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2011.07098

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

青藏高原东部近林线紫果云杉原始林的群落结构与物种组成

刘鑫1,2, 包维楷1,*()   

  1. 1 中国科学院成都生物研究所生态恢复重点实验室, 成都 610041
    2 中国科学院研究生院, 北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2010-04-22 接受日期:2010-10-03 出版日期:2011-01-20 发布日期:2011-04-01
  • 通讯作者: 包维楷
  • 作者简介:*E-mail: baowk@cib.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(30972350)

Community structure and vascular plant species composition of primary spruce forest near timberline in the eastern Tibetan Plateau

Xin Liu1,2, Weikai Bao1,*()   

  1. 1 Key Laboratary of Ecological Restoration, Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041
    2 Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
  • Received:2010-04-22 Accepted:2010-10-03 Online:2011-01-20 Published:2011-04-01
  • Contact: Weikai Bao

摘要:

原始云杉林是青藏高原东部林区近林线森林的重要类型之一, 但关于其林分结构与多样性的科学认识到目前为止仍然是贫乏的。为了揭示云杉原始林的层次结构及其相互关系、维管植物组成特点, 选择四川省壤塘县北部日柯沟近林线的紫果云杉(Picea purpurea)原始林为对象, 调查了6个40 m×50 m样地的乔木层结构, 并在样地内采用机械布点的方法设置180个小样方, 调查了林下灌木层、草本层和苔藓层结构以及灌草层物种组成。结果显示: (1)云杉原始林为复层异龄林, 乔木层分化明显, 可划分为4个亚层; 幼树密度不高但集中分布于林窗及其边缘(144±93株/ha); (2)林下灌木盖度与物种丰富度低, 层片结构简单, 呈明显的斑块状分布; 而草本层与苔藓层发达, 盖度与物种丰富度均较高; (3)6个样地共发现维管植物124种, 隶属于30科68属。其中草本109种, 灌木15种, 以温带区系成分占优势, 特有性缺乏; 生活型以地面芽植物为主体(61.29%)。综合分析表明, 该林分为藓类云杉林, 群落结构完整、稳定, 自然更新能力强, 与本区域内亚高山或高山林线森林具有相似的物种组成和多样性特点, 但群落结构则明显不同。

关键词: 群落结构, 青藏高原东部, 原始林, 物种组成, 云杉林, 林线

Abstract

Spruce forest is a typical alpine forest type near timberline in the eastern Tibetan Plateau. However, little is known about this ecosystem. In the present study we investigated community structure and vascular plant composition of such forests in northern Zamtang County, Sichuan Province, China. We sampled six plots (40 m×50 m) in primary forests in a range of 3,700-3,800 m elevation. For all trees ≥ 3 m in height in each plot, height and diameter at 50 cm height were measured. A total of 180 subplots (1 m×1 m), 30 for each plot, were sampled to estimate the coverage of shrubs, herbs and bryophytes, and species composition of shrubs and herbs. Four sub-layers could be recognized within the canopy, suggesting that the forest is uneven-aged and multi-storied. Structure analysis of tree height and diameter showed that the arborous layer was stable and maintained a certain regenerative ability. Shrubs showed a patchy spatial pattern with simple structure and low richness. Compared to low coverage (15.4±20.9%) of shrubs, coverage of herbs and bryophytes (49.4±21.9% and 36.6±21.2%, respectively) were higher, forming obvious herb and bryophyte layers. A total of 124 vascular species (109 herbs and 15 shrubs) were recorded in all six plots, belonging to 68 genera and 30 families. Temperate areal-type genera and hemicryptophyte species were dominant. We concluded that the forest was a moss-spruce forest type. Although the species composition and richness were quite similar to other forests in Tibetan Plateau, community structure differed significantly. Our results provide insights into management and biodiversity conservation in forests near the timberline in the eastern Tibetan Plateau.

Key words: spruce forest, timberline, community structure, eastern Tibetan Plateau, primary forest, species composition