生物多样性 ›› 2020, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (11): 1431-1443.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2020225

• 综述 • 上一篇    

整体大于部分之和: 生态自组织斑图及其涌现属性

葛振鹏, 刘权兴*()   

  1. 华东师范大学生态与环境科学学院, 上海 200241
  • 收稿日期:2020-06-01 接受日期:2020-07-16 出版日期:2020-11-20 发布日期:2020-07-30
  • 通讯作者: 刘权兴
  • 作者简介:* E-mail: qxliu@sklec.ecnu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    科技部重点研发计划(2016YFE0133700);国家自然科学基金(41676084)

More than the sum of its parts: Self-organized patterns and emergent properties of ecosystems

Zhenpeng Ge, Quanxing Liu*()   

  1. School of Ecological and Environmental Sciences, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241
  • Received:2020-06-01 Accepted:2020-07-16 Online:2020-11-20 Published:2020-07-30
  • Contact: Quanxing Liu

摘要:

近30年来, 自组织理论已经发展成为解释生态系统呈现规则空间格局的有效理论。伴随着生态系统自发有序空间格局的生成, 自组织过程产生一系列的涌现属性, 这些特征对生态系统功能至关重要。在此, 我们将介绍这一正蓬勃发展的研究领域的主要理论进展。首先, 叙述了自组织这一概念的发展历程与定义, 详细阐述了自组织理论的两个经典理论框架: 图灵原理与相分离原理。然后, 根据几个典型的生态自组织研究案例, 描述了图灵原理与相分离原理在不同生态系统中的具体数学模型表达形式。接着, 分别阐述了图灵原理的涌现属性对生态系统功能以及相分离原理的涌现属性对细胞功能的作用。最后, 从多尺度自组织斑图、瞬态斑图和生物个体行为自组织3个方面对未来生态自组织理论发展方向进行了探讨。自组织研究在生态学与生物学研究中方兴未艾, 希望更多的学者在未来关注与参与该领域的发展。

关键词: 空间自组织, 规则空间格局, 图灵原理, 相分离原理, 生态模型, 生态系统功能

Abstract

Over the past 30 years, the self-organization theory has effectively explained the regular spatial patterning of ecosystems and has led to a proliferation of studies investigating spatial patterns in ecology and biology. Indeed, the emergent properties generated by this self-organization process are now recognized as critical to ecosystem functioning. Here, we review this important theoretical framework by assessing the definition and development of the concept of self-organization and by evaluating two fundamental theoretical principles of self-organization theory, the Turing principle and the phase separation principle. We further describe the mathematical models of each principle in the context of different, unique ecosystems, and explain the emergent properties of the Turing principle on ecosystem functioning and the phase separation principle on cell functions, respectively. Finally, we propose three promising future developments for ecological self-organization theory: multi-scale self-organization patterns, transient patterns, and individual behavioral self-organization. Our review provides an assessment of this fundamental ecological theory and offers exciting new research directions and applications.

Key words: spatial self-organization, regular spatial patterning, Turing principle, phase separation principle, ecological model, ecosystem functioning