生物多样性 ›› 2018, Vol. 26 ›› Issue (2): 111-129.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2017021

所属专题: 生物多样性与生态系统功能

• 保护论坛 • 上一篇    下一篇

青藏高原高寒草地生物多样性与生态系统功能的关系

张中华1,6, 周华坤1,2,*(), 赵新全1,2,*(), 姚步青1, 马真1, 董全民3, 张振华1, 王文颖4, 杨元武5   

  1. 1 .中国科学院西北高原生物研究所青海省寒区恢复生态学重点实验室, 西宁 810008
    2 .青海大学省部共建三江源生态与高原农牧业国家重点实验室, 西宁 810016
    3. 青海省畜牧兽医科学院, 西宁 810016
    4 .青海师范大学生命与地理科学学院, 西宁 810008
    5 .青海大学农牧学院, 西宁 810016
    6 .中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2017-01-23 接受日期:2017-07-15 出版日期:2018-02-20 发布日期:2018-05-05
  • 通讯作者: 周华坤,赵新全
  • 作者简介:

    # 共同第一作者

  • 基金资助:
    青海省自然科学基金(2016-ZJ-910)、青海省创新平台建设专项(2017-ZJ-Y20)、省部共建三江源生态和高原农牧业国家重点实验室开放研究项目(2017-KF-02)、国家重点研发计划(2016YFC0501901)、国家自然科学基金(31672475, 31472135)和青海省科技厅项目(2016-ZJ-Y01)

Relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in alpine meadows of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

Zhonghua Zhang1,6, Huakun Zhou1,2,*(), Xinquan Zhao1,2,*(), Buqing Yao1, Zhen Ma1, Quanmin Dong3, Zhenhua Zhang1, Wenying Wang4, Yuanwu Yang5   

  1. 1 Key Laboratory of Cold Regions Restoration Ecology, Qinghai Province, Northwest Plateau Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xining 810008
    2 The Co-constructing State Key Laboratory of Three Rivers Sources Ecology and Plateau Agriculture and Animal Husbandry, Qinghai University, Xining 810016
    3 Qinghai Academy of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Xining 810016
    4 College of Life and Geography Science, Qinghai Normal University, Xining 810008
    5 College of Agricultural and Animal Husbandry, Qinghai University, Xining 810016
    6 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
  • Received:2017-01-23 Accepted:2017-07-15 Online:2018-02-20 Published:2018-05-05
  • Contact: Zhou Huakun,Zhao Xinquan
  • About author:

    # Co-first authors

摘要:

生物多样性和生态系统功能(BEF)之间的关系是目前陆地生态系统生态学研究的热点, 对于生态系统的高效利用与管理意义重大, 而且对于退化生态系统功能的恢复及生物多样性的保护有重要的指导作用。高寒草地是青藏高原生态系统的主体, 近年来, 在气候变化与人为干扰等因素的驱动下, 高寒草地生态系统功能严重衰退。为此, 本文在综述物种多样性和生态系统功能及其相互关系研究进展的基础上, 首先从地下生态学过程研究、全球变化对生态系统多功能性的影响等方面解析了目前关于草地生物多样性和生态系统功能研究中存在的问题。继而, 从不同草地类型、草地退化程度、放牧、模拟气候变化、刈割、施肥、封育和补播等干扰利用方式对高寒草地物种多样性与生态系统功能的影响进行了全面的评述。并指出了高寒草地BEF研究中存在的不足, 今后应基于物种功能多样性开展高寒草地BEF研究, 全面且综合地考虑非生物因子(养分资源、外界干扰、环境波动等)对生物多样性与生态系统功能之间关系的影响, 关注尺度效应和要素耦合在全球气候变化对高寒草地BEF研究中的作用。最后, 以高寒草地BEF研究进展和结论为支撑依据, 综合提出了高寒草地资源利用和生物多样性保护的措施与建议: 加强放牧管理, 保护生物多样性; 治理退化草地, 维持生物多样性功能; 加强创新保护理念, 增强生态系统功能。

关键词: 高寒草地, 生物多样性, 生态系统功能, 生产力, 气候变暖, 放牧, 土地利用, 保护策略

Abstract

The study of the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning (BEF) is a hot topic in the field of terrestrial ecosystem ecology, and is of great significance for the efficient use and management of ecosystems. Furthermore, it plays an important role in the restoration of degraded ecosystems and biodiversity conservation. Alpine grassland is the main ecosystem type found in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. In recent years, progress has been made on species diversity and ecosystem functioning and their mutual relationship in alpine grasslands. This paper analyzes existing problems in the research of grassland biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in terms of the study of underlying ecological processes and the impacts on ecosystem multi-functionality under global change. The effects of different grassland types, grassland degradation, grazing disturbance, simulated climate change, mowing, fertilization, enclosure, and replanting on the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in alpine grasslands are also thoroughly reviewed in this paper. Moreover, deficiencies and future research directions of alpine grassland BEF are identified: carrying on the BEF research of alpine grasslands based on the functional diversity of species, comprehensively considering the effects of abiotic factors such as resource supply levels, disturbance intensity and scale, and environmental fluctuation on the relationship between species diversity and ecosystem function, and paying attention to the effect of scale and element coupling on BEF research of alpine grasslands under global climate change. Finally, based on research progress and conclusions of BEF in alpine grasslands, we put forward suggestions to improve the utilization rate of alpine grassland resources and biodiversity conservation, including strengthening grazing management, protecting biodiversity, improving governance of degraded grasslands, maintaining biodiversity function, strengthening innovation and protection concepts and enhancing ecosystem functioning that has been seriously weakened by climate change and human disturbance.

Key words: alpine meadow, biodiversity, ecosystem function, productivity, climate warming, grazing, land use, protection strategy