生物多样性 ›› 2015, Vol. 23 ›› Issue (3): 341-350.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2014115

所属专题: 生物多样性与生态系统功能

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绿化植物的生活型对边坡植被物种多样性及护坡性能的影响

潘声旺1, 胡明成1, 罗竞红1, 吴云霄2, *   

  1. 1 (成都大学城乡建设学院, 成都 610106); 2 (延安大学生命科学学院, 陕西延安 716000);
  • 收稿日期:2014-06-06 修回日期:2015-03-11 出版日期:2015-06-08 发布日期:2015-06-12
  • 通讯作者: * 通讯作者Author for correspondence. E-mail: yxwu@swu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(31300439)

Effects of rehabilitation species on slope vegetation diversity and soil and water conservation

Shengwang Pan1, Mingcheng Hu1, Jinghong Luo1, Yunxiao Wu2, *   

  1. 1 College of Urban and Rural Construction, Chengdu University, Chengdu 610106; 2 College of Life Sciences, Yan’an University, Yan’an, Shaanxi 716000
  • Received:2014-06-06 Revised:2015-03-11 Online:2015-06-08 Published:2015-06-12

摘要:

为了探讨绿化植物生活型构成对边坡植被物种多样性及护坡性能的影响, 揭示生活型构成-群落特征-物种多样性-生态系统功能间的内在联系, 借助三物种组装实验, 分别构建以草本、灌木或乔木为主体的草本型(HHXi)、灌木型(SSXi)、乔木型(AAXi)或草-灌-乔混合型(HSA)配置模式的实验小区, 对实验区内边坡植被的群落特征、护坡性能进行持续4年的生态监测。结果表明: (1)边坡植被的物种丰富度与绿化植物生活型构成有关, AAXi的物种丰富度总体高于其他模式, 呈AAXi > SSXi > HSA > HHXi趋势。(2)不同配置模式边坡植被的群落盖度不一样, 年际间差异显著: 建坪初期(2010-2011年), HHXi的群落盖度远高于其他模式, HSA次之, AAXi最低; 2012-2013年间, HSA的群落盖度最高, HHXi次之, AAXi最低。(3)边坡植被的Shannon-Wiener指数、Pielou指数与绿化植物生活型构成有关, 其变化规律与群落盖度类似: 建坪初期, HHXi的多样性水平远高于其他模式, 呈HHXi > HSA > SSXi > AAXi趋势; 之后, 呈HSA > HHXi > SSXi > AAXi趋势。(4)边坡植被的护坡性能与群落内的物种多样性密切相关: 多样性水平越高, 护坡性能越强。可见, 在生态护坡过程中, 绿化植物生活型构成对提高边坡植被物种多样性、改善护坡性能至关重要。

关键词: 群落特征, 物种丰富度, Shannon-Wiener指数, Pielou指数, 生态系统功能

Abstract:

China’s mammalian fauna is unique: it possesses the endemic species and genera of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau; it has the relic families, Ailuropodidae and Lipotidae, of the Tertiary Period; more than half of the species of the Ochotonidae in the country are endemic; furthermore China is also the country with world most abundant ungulate diversity. In the new millennia, changes to the taxonomy of mammals of world were proposed. New mammalian species and new mammals were reported in China. Thus it is necessary to renew the inventory of China’s mammal diversity. During the compiling of The Red List of Endangered Species in China: Mammals, we collected the available data on China’s mammals (including those of Taiwan) and formed The Checklist of China’s Mammal Species 2015. For taxonomy of orders, we followed the existing theory using molecular phylogeny whereas for the classification of families and the taxa below family level, we followed the A Complete Checklist of Mammal Species and Subspecies in China: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference by Wang (2003) and Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference by Wilson & Reeder (2005). We also adopted Ungulate Taxonomy by Groves & Grubb (2011) to classify the ungulates in China. The initial list included species recorded in taxonomic books and field guides, new species and new records in literature before March 31, 2015. After five evaluation meetings and two rounds of evaluation by correspondence, we finalized The Checklist of China’s Mammal Species 2015, which includes 12 orders, 55 families, 245 genera and 673 species. Among those species, 18 new species (including 11 discovered with molecular biology methods, the validity of the species are still in dispute among zoologists), 18 new species records in country, and 60 subspecies were elevated to the status of species were added to the checklist. According to literature and expertise, we deleted 52 species which are not found in China. Of them, specimens of some species were collected only once, and then never been found again during following surveys. Taxonomists hold different opinions on 20 Glires, and those species need further investigation. Compared with the data of IUCN Red List (2014), the number of mammal species in China recorded in the study is surpassed that of Indonisia (670), China became the country with the most abundant mammal species in the world. The mammals in China accounted for 12.3% of the world total numbers of mammalian species. There are 150 endemic mammals in China, which accounted for 22.3% of the national total. 43% of the species in Lagomorpha are endemics to the country. The endemic ratio of Ochotonidae is even higher, 52% of the total. Endemic ratio of Eulipotyphla is 35%. About one fifth of Primates, Chiroptera and Rodentia in China are also endemics, including 12 new bat species discovered in the country during recent decade. The Checklist of China’s Mammal Species 2015 provides the most updated baseline information for biodiversity research and conservation.

Key words: mammals, inventory, biodiversity, endemic species