生物多样性 ›› 2016, Vol. 24 ›› Issue (6): 649-657.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2015290

所属专题: 生物多样性与生态系统功能

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毛竹扩张对次生常绿阔叶林物种组成、结构与多样性的影响

欧阳明, 杨清培*(), 陈昕, 杨光耀, 施建敏, 方向民   

  1. 江西农业大学江西省竹子种质资源与利用重点实验室, 南昌 330045
  • 收稿日期:2015-10-25 接受日期:2016-04-19 出版日期:2016-06-20 发布日期:2016-06-20
  • 通讯作者: 杨清培
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(31260120 和3146077)和江西省自然科学基金(20122BAB204019)

Effects of the expansion of Phyllostachys edulis on species composition, structure and diversity of the secondary evergreen broad-leaved forests

Ming Ouyang, Qingpei Yang*(), Xin Chen, Guangyao Yang, Jianmin Shi, Xiangmin Fang   

  1. Jiangxi Provincial Key Laboratory for Bamboo Germplasm Resources and Utilization, Jiangxi Agricultural University, Nanchang 330045
  • Received:2015-10-25 Accepted:2016-04-19 Online:2016-06-20 Published:2016-06-20
  • Contact: Yang Qingpei

摘要:

毛竹(Phyllostachys edulis)向邻近次生常绿阔叶林扩张现象明显, 极大地影响了常绿阔叶林的生态功能, 但关于其扩张对常绿阔叶林的群落结构与生物多样性影响的后效研究较少。本文采用时空替代法, 在江西井冈山国家级自然保护区沿毛竹扩张方向, 依次设置毛竹林、竹阔混交林和常绿阔叶林样地, 比较分析了扩张前后群落物种相似性、群落结构和多样性指数等特征。结果表明: (1)毛竹林与常绿阔叶林乔木层、灌木层和草本层的Bray-Curtis相似性指数很小, 分别为0.003、0.046和0.030。(2)毛竹林的垂直结构呈“>”型, 高度12-14 m区间的多度百分比达33.3%, 径级结构集中分布于5-10 cm区间, 达总数的90.0%; 常绿阔叶林的垂直结构为“L”型, 高度2-4 m的物种数占54.3%, 径级分布范围较广, 4个较大径级区间的平均百分比为10.3%。(3)乔木层的Shannon-Wiener指数由常绿阔叶林的2.56降至毛竹林的0.06, 降幅高达98%; 灌木层也由2.58降至2.03, 降幅21%。以上结果说明, 毛竹扩张会导致次生常绿阔叶林群落组成和结构简化、物种多样性下降, 对森林生态系统功能产生负面影响。

关键词: 毛竹扩张, 常绿阔叶林, 竹阔界面, 物种多样性, 生态系统功能, 自然保护区

Abstract

The expansion of Phyllostachys edulis into the adjacent secondary evergreen broad-leaved forest (EBF) is obvious and greatly affects its ecological function. Little research has examined its effects on community structure and biodiversity. We comparatively analyzed the characteristics of species composition, community structure and diversity before and after the expansion of P. edulis forest (PEF), P. edulis-broad-leaved mixed forest (PBMF) and EBF along a gradient of P. edulis expansion in the Jinggangshan National Nature Reserve in Jiangxi Province using a space for time substitution method. Results indicated that: (1) The Bray-Curtis similarity index values of the tree layer, shrub layer and herb layer between PEF and EBF were 0.003, 0.046 and 0.030, respectively. (2) The PEF vertical structure showed a “>” type and the abundance percentage was 33.3% in 12-14 m interval, its diameter at breast height (DBH) class structure concentrated distribution in 5-10 cm interval, whose percentage was as high as 90.0%; while the EBF vertical structure showed a “L” type and the abundance percentages was 54.3% in 2-4 m interval, its DBH class distribution range was relatively wide, the average percentage of four larger diameter grades was 10.3%. (3) The Shannon-Wiener index value in the tree layer declined from 2.56 in EBF to 0.06 in PEF, with a reduction of 98%. In the shrub layer, the index value dropped from 2.58 to 2.03, declining 21%. We suggest that the expansion of P. edulis simplified the community composition and structure of the secondary evergreen broad-leaved forest and reduced species diversity, which can cause adverse impacts on forest ecosystem functioning.

Key words: Phyllostachys edulis expansion, evergreen broad-leaved forest, bamboo and broad-leaved forest interface, species diversity, ecosystem function, natural reserve