生物多样性 ›› 2020, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (11): 1417-1430.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2020233

• 综述 • 上一篇    下一篇

生态系统的多稳态与突变

徐驰1,*(), 王海军2, 刘权兴3, 王博1   

  1. 1 南京大学生命科学学院, 南京 210023
    2 云南大学生态与环境学院高原湖泊生态学与治理研究院, 昆明 656504
    3 华东师范大学生态与环境学院, 上海 200241
  • 收稿日期:2020-06-09 接受日期:2020-10-24 出版日期:2020-11-20 发布日期:2020-12-21
  • 通讯作者: 徐驰
  • 作者简介:* E-mail: xuchi@nju.edu.cn.
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(32061143014);国家自然科学基金(31770512);宁夏回族自治区中央引导地方科技发展专项项目

Alternative stable states and tipping points of ecosystems

Chi Xu1,*(), Haijun Wang2, Quanxing Liu3, Bo Wang1   

  1. 1 School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023
    2 Institute for Ecological Research and Pollution Control of Plateau Lakes, School of Ecology and Environmental Science, Yunnan University, Kunming 656504
    3 School of Ecological and Environmental Sciences, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241
  • Received:2020-06-09 Accepted:2020-10-24 Online:2020-11-20 Published:2020-12-21
  • Contact: Chi Xu

摘要:

许多生态系统可能在短时间内发生难以预料的状态突变, 其中一些生态系统突变的机理可以用多稳态理论进行解释。近年来生态系统的多稳态和突变现象及其机理吸引了研究者和管理者的广泛关注。本文重点对生态系统多稳态的理论基础、识别方法及稳态转换发生的早期预警信号进行综述, 并基于典型生态系统过程对现实世界中可能观测到的稳态转换进行实例分析, 最后对多稳态概念框架和理论应用中的潜在争议进行讨论, 以期为非线性生态系统动态的理论研究、管理实践和生物多样性保护等提供参考。

关键词: 稳态转换, 临界转换, 分岔, 早期预警信号, 弹性, 自组织

Abstract

Many ecosystems may experience abrupt shifts at certain tipping points subject to gradual environmental changes or small perturbations. The theory of alternative stable states has been applied to explain a wide range of observed ecosystem tipping points. In recent years, alternative ecosystem states and tipping points have received increasing attention among both researchers and the public. Here, we reviewed the theoretical basis of alternative stable states, the approaches for detecting the existence of alternative stable states, and a set of “generic early warning indicators” for anticipating the transitions between alternative stable states. We also reviewed typical cases to demonstrate how the alternative stable states theory is linked to real-world ecosystems. and discuss the potential misuse and controversy with respect to the concept and applications of this theory. We expect to provide useful references to Chinese audiences in the fields of nonlinear ecosystem dynamics, ecosystem management and biodiversity conservation in a changing world.

Key words: regime shift, critical transition, bifurcation, early warning signal, resilience, self-organization