生物多样性 ›› 2019, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (9): 943-950.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2019014

• 中国雪豹调查研究与保护专题 • 上一篇    下一篇

三江源地区雪豹保护优先区规划

肖凌云1,#,程琛1,2,##,万华伟3,张德海4,王永财3,才旦5,侯鹏3,李娟6,杨欣7,吕植1,*(),刘玉平3,*()   

  1. 1 北京大学生命科学学院自然保护与社会发展研究中心, 北京 100871
    2 山水自然保护中心, 北京 100871
    3 生态环境部卫星环境应用中心, 北京 100094
    4 三江源国家公园管理局, 西宁 810001
    5 青海省玉树藏族自治州林业局, 青海玉树 815000
    6 Department of Environmental Science, Policy and Management, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3114, USA
    7 四川省绿色江河环境保护促进会, 成都 610041
  • 收稿日期:2019-01-18 接受日期:2019-05-23 出版日期:2019-09-20 发布日期:2019-09-25
  • 通讯作者: 肖凌云,程琛,吕植,刘玉平
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划(2018YFC0507200);高分重大科技专项(05-Y30B02-9001-13/15);国家青年科学基金(41801366)

Defining conservation priority areas of snow leopard habitat in the Sanjiangyuan Region

Lingyun Xiao1,#,Chen Cheng1,2,##,Huawei Wan3,Dehai Zhang4,Yongcai Wang3,Tsedan 5,Peng Hou3,Juan Li6,Xin Yang7,Zhi Lü1,*(),Yuping Liu3,*()   

  1. 1 Center for Nature and Society, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871
    2 Shan Shui Conservation Center, Beijing 100871
    3 Center for Satellite Application on Ecology and Environment, Ministry of Ecology and Environment, Beijing 100094
    4 Management Bureau of the Three-River-Source National Park, Xining 810001
    5 Forestry Bureau of Yushu Prefecture, Yushu, Qinghai 815000
    6 Department of Environmental Science, Policy and Management, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3114, USA
    7 Sichuan Green River Environmental Protection Promotion Association, Chengdu 610041
  • Received:2019-01-18 Accepted:2019-05-23 Online:2019-09-20 Published:2019-09-25
  • Contact: Lingyun Xiao,Chen Cheng,Zhi Lü,Yuping Liu

摘要:

为了将有限资源合理投放到关键区域, 实现物种保护成效的最大化, 找出质量最好的栖息地及它们之间的迁徙通道是制定保护规划的第一步。本研究以三江源的雪豹(Panthera uncia)栖息地为对象, 基于野外调查数据和高分辨率卫星遥感数据, 利用物种分布模型、保护规划模型和连通度分析工具, 找出了三江源地区雪豹的核心栖息地分布和潜在迁徙通道位置, 分析了目前保护中的潜在威胁, 并提出了针对三江源西、中、东三块区域的不同保护对策。结果表明: (1)三江源西部核心栖息地比较小而破碎, 但迁徙通道较多且没有明显窄点, 未来应关注青藏线的潜在阻碍作用, 同时应防范道路沿线的野生动物盗猎; (2)中部区域横跨玉树-杂多-囊谦的雪豹栖息地是三江源最大的核心雪豹栖息地, 在连通其他种群中也处于中心地位, 应通过种群监测确定其健康稳定, 对开发、偷猎等威胁防微杜渐, 保持其源种群的作用; (3)东部区域人口密度高, 受人类活动的影响最大, 需保证阿尼玛卿、年保玉则两块核心栖息地的质量, 并重点监测甘德县境内的省道处雪豹的迁徙通道是否畅通。三江源地区雪豹栖息地总体质量较好, 建议将维持核心源种群的稳定性, 保持种群间迁徙通道的畅通作为三江源的雪豹景观保护工作的整体目标。未来应充分利用天地一体化监测手段, 开展重要保护物种栖息地状况的评估和预警, 尤其是非保护地区域物种核心栖息地的开发建设活动。

关键词: 雪豹, 栖息地, 高分辨率卫星, 保护优先区, 迁徙通道

Abstract:

To maximize species conservation outcomes and effectively allocate limited resources, the first step in conservation planning is to define conservation priority areas and migration pathways between them. Based on field survey and high-resolution satellite data, we used species distribution models, conservation planning tools and connectivity analysis tools to define the core habitat area and potential corridors for snow leopards (Panthera uncia) in the Sanjiangyuan Region. With potential threats identified, we proposed differentiated conservation strategies for different parts of the Sanjiangyuan Region: (1) In the western region, snow leopard core habitats are mostly small and fragmented but with widespread migration pathways and no obvious bottlenecks. However, the Qinghai-Tibet Railway is a potential barrier for snow leopard populations in the western region and needs further investigation. (2) The central region contains the largest core habitat which also has highest centrality in the connectivity analysis. To maintain the function of these source populations, we recommend long-term monitoring, anti-poaching patrol and supervision on development projects for this region. (3) For the eastern region, which has the highest human density, it is important to safeguard two core habitats (Anemaqen and Nanpo Yutze) and maintain the narrow corridors in between them. The provincial highway in Gande County may be a potential barrier for snow leopard migration and deserves further monitoring. As the epicenter for snow leopard conservation in China, the habitat quality in the Sanjiangyuan Region remains good overall. The goal of snow leopard landscape conservation in Sanjiangyuan should be to maintain core source populations while keeping migration routes unblocked. Integrated space-ground monitoring approaches should be implemented in the future for assessments and early warning signs of habitat degradation for these important protected species, especially in non-protected areas in core habitat at risk for development.

Key words: snow leopard, habitat, high-resolution satellite data, conservation priority, dispersal corridor