生物多样性 ›› 2014, Vol. 22 ›› Issue (5): 630-639.DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2014.00109

所属专题: 红树林专题 海洋生物多样性

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广西北海西村港互花米草对红树林湿地大型底栖动物群落的影响

赵彩云1, 柳晓燕1, 白加德2, 吕凤春1, 李俊生1,*()   

  1. 1 中国环境科学研究院环境基准与风险评估国家重点实验室, 北京 100012
    2 北京麋鹿生态实验中心, 北京 100076
  • 收稿日期:2014-06-03 接受日期:2014-09-15 出版日期:2014-09-20 发布日期:2014-10-09
  • 通讯作者: 李俊生
  • 基金资助:
    环保部事业经费项目;广西北部湾沿海外来入侵物种互花米草普查与生态安全调查项目;陆地自然环境外来入侵物种普查、防控与资源化利用;中国环境科学研究院院所基金项目(2012-YSKY-05)

Impact of Spartina alterniflora on benthic macro-invertebrates communities on mangrove wetland in Xicungang Estuary, Guangxi

Caiyun Zhao1, Xiaoyan Liu1, Jiade Bai2, Fengchun Lü1, Junsheng Li1,*()   

  1. 1 State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012
    2 Beijing Milu Ecological Research Center, Beijing 100076
  • Received:2014-06-03 Accepted:2014-09-15 Online:2014-09-20 Published:2014-10-09
  • Contact: Li Junsheng

摘要:

为了解互花米草(Spartina alterniflora)入侵红树林的生态影响, 作者对位于北海市西村港的红树林湿地以及周边互花米草盐沼的大型底栖动物群落多样性和群落结构进行了研究。2012年10月至2013年9月连续4次取样, 按照取样时间研究大型底栖动物的种类、物种组成、生物量和生物多样性等群落特征的差异, 探讨互花米草入侵红树林湿地对大型底栖动物的影响。本研究共采集底栖动物16种, 隶属于5门7纲15科, 其中互花米草群落10种, 红树林湿地12种。研究发现互花米草入侵后中国绿螂(Glauconome chinensis)个体数量剧增, 导致不同采样时间互花米草盐沼的大型底栖动物生物量均显著高于红树林湿地; 除个别月份外, 红树林湿地大型底栖动物的Margalef丰富度指数、Shannon-Wiener多样性指数、Simpson多样性指数和Pielou均匀度指数均显著高于互花米草群落。基于生境-采样时间的双因素方差分析结果表明, Shannon-Wiener多样性指数和Simpson指数在两种生境间差异显著; 两种生境的Margalef丰富度和Pielou均匀度指数在不同采样时间差异显著; 大型底栖动物生物量和物种数量在两种生境间和不同采样时间差异均显著。基于多元回归分析的研究结果表明, 互花米草密度是影响大型底栖动物生物量的关键因子, 而互花米草株高可以解释物种个体数量、Shannon-Wiener多样性指数和Simpson指数在两种生境的变化。对不同采样时间大型底栖动物群落结构的非度量多维度(non-metric multidimensional scaling, NMDS)分析结果表明, 红树林与互花米草群落的大型底栖动物群落相似性很低。总而言之, 在西村港地区, 互花米草入侵虽然增加了大型底栖动物的生物量, 但由于优势物种的凸显, 显著降低了大型底栖动物群落的多样性, 且种类组成与群落结构与红树林群落相比已有差异。由此可见, 互花米草入侵红树林对当地的大型底栖动物群落多样性造成影响。

关键词: 大型底栖动物, Spartina alterniflora, 群落结构, 生物多样性, 生物入侵

Abstract:

In order to assess the ecological impacts of Spartina alterniflora on mangrove ecosystems, we investigated macro-invertebrate communities in S. alterniflora wetlands and a mangrove wetland between October 2012 and September 2013, in the Xicungang estuary, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. The species composition, biomass and diversity of macro-invertebrates were compared at different times between the mangrove habitat and S. alterniflora community. Sixteen species from Arthropoda, Mollusca, Annelida, Cnidadia and Sipuncula were collected from the two habitats. Twelve species were found in mangrove wetlands whereas 10 species were found in S. alterniflora wetlands. Perhaps due to the invasion of S. alterniflora, Glauconome chinensis became the predominant species, leading to a greater macro-invertebrate biomass in S. alterniflora wetlands than in mangrove wetland. On the other hand, the Margalef, Shannon-Wiener index, Simpson and Pieous diversity indices of macro-invertebrates were lower in S. alterniflora habitat than in mangrove habitat. Two-way ANOVA was used to analyze the effect of sampling periods and habitats on the number of species, biomass and diversity indices of macro-invertebrates. Our results showed that Shannon- Wiener index and Simpson diversity indices differed between the two habitats, the Margalef and Pieous diversity indices differed among sampling periods, number of species and biomass were affected by both habitats and sampling periods. Based on multiple linear regression analyses, macro-invertebrate biomass was related to the density of S. alterniflora, and Shannon-Wiener, Simpson diversity and species richness of macro-invertebrates were all related with the height of S. alterniflora. According to our NMDS (non-metric multidimensional scaling) analysis, macro-invertebrate communities in S. alterniflora habitat mainly differed from those of mangrove habitats due to sampling periods. In conclusion, the invasion of S. alterniflora in mangrove wetlands in Xicungang estuary increased the biomass of macro-invertebrates, while decreased the diversity of them, and also changed the community structure of macro-invertebrate assemblages.

Key words: macro-invertebrates, Spartina alterniflora, community structure, biodiversity biological invasion