生物多样性 ›› 2014, Vol. 22 ›› Issue (5): 624-629.DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2014.14051

所属专题: 海洋生物多样性

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厦门同安湾定置网捕获鱼类的多样性及营养级特征

廖建基, 郑新庆, 杜建国*(), 陈彬, 马志远, 胡文佳   

  1. 国家海洋局第三海洋研究所, 福建厦门 361005
  • 收稿日期:2014-03-12 接受日期:2014-09-15 出版日期:2014-09-20 发布日期:2014-10-09
  • 通讯作者: 杜建国
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(31101902)、国家海洋局第三海洋研究所基本科研业务费专项资金(海三科2011006)、福建省自然科学基金(2012J05074)、海洋公益性行业科研专项经费项目(201305030-4)

Biodiversity and trophic level characteristics of fishes captured by set nets in Tong’an Bay, Xiamen

Jianji Liao, Xinqing Zheng, Jianguo Du*, Bin Chen, Zhiyuan Ma, Wenjia Hu   

  1. Third Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Xiamen, Fujian 361005
  • Received:2014-03-12 Accepted:2014-09-15 Online:2014-09-20 Published:2014-10-09

摘要:

利用2012年4月至2013年3月在同安湾进行的定置网渔业资源调查资料, 探讨了该海域鱼类多样性及平均营养级特征。结果表明, 周年逐月共鉴定鱼类112种, 隶属于15目53科88属。渔获物组成以沿岸小型底层鱼类为主, 其中中上层鱼类15种, 中下层鱼类18种, 底层鱼类79种; 暖水性种类84种, 暖温性种类28种, 亚热带动物区系特征明显; 杂食性鱼类8种, 低级肉食性鱼类71种, 中级肉食性鱼类30种, 高级肉食性鱼类3种, 以低级肉食性鱼类为主。中华海鲶(Tachysurus sinensis)是夏、秋、冬三季的优势种, 六指多指马鲅(Polydactylus sextarius)、锯脊塘鳢(Butis koilomatodon)和髭缟鰕虎鱼(Tridentiger barbatus)是春、冬两季的优势种。重量和尾数多样性指数最高值均在11月, 分别为3.26和3.29; 最低值均在2月, 分别为1.78和1.77。鱼类种类存在明显的季节更替现象, 其月更替率6月最低, 为40.1%; 3月最高, 达68.6%。鱼类平均营养级也存在明显的季节变化, 其中3月最低, 为3.02; 1月最高, 为3.92; 周年平均营养级为3.52。与2003年调查资料相比, 鱼类种类数明显减少, 鱼类组成和优势种发生了很大的变化, 导致变化的主要原因可能是过度捕捞、栖息地破坏和环境污染等。

关键词: 海湾, 生物多样性, 海洋食物网, 营养级

Abstract:

The diversity and trophic levels of fish species in Tong’an Bay were described based on monthly set net fishing surveys from April 2012 to March 2013. A total of 112 species belonging to 88 genera, 53 families and 15 orders were recorded. According to their habitat strata, the fishes were grouped into 3 types, among them 15 species were pelagic, 18 near demersal, and 79 demersal. According to adaptation to temperature, the fishes were divided into 2 types, 84 species were warm water and the other 28 were warm-temperate species. In terms of food habits, there were 4 types, of which 8 species were omnivores, 71 lower carnivorous, 30 middle carnivorous and 3 higher carnivorous. Tachysurus sinensis was the dominant species in summer, autumn and winter, while Polydactylus sextarius, Butis koilomatodon and Tridentiger barbatus were the dominant species in spring and winter. The highest body mass and individual Shannon-Wiener diversity index were 3.26 and 3.29 in November, and the lowest values were 1.78 and 1.77 in February, respectively. The fish community showed distinct seasonal changes, with the lowest monthly change rate of fishes of 40.1% in June, and the highest was 68.6% in March. The mean trophic level also showed significant changes, the minimum was 3.02 in March, the maximum was 3.92 in January, and the average mean trophic level was 3.52. Comparing our data set with previous data from 2003-2004, we found that the species number, species composition and the dominant species in Tong’an Bay all changed significantly. Overfishing, habitat loss and environmental pollution were identified as main factors causing the decline in fish diversity in Tong’an Bay.

Key words: bay, biodiversity, marine food web, trophic level