生物多样性 ›› 2013, Vol. 21 ›› Issue (3): 359-363.DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2013.05162

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云南省高等植物多样性与分布状况

陈丽1,2, 董洪进2, 彭华2,*   

  1. 1 西南林业大学林学院, 昆明 650224
    2 中国科学院昆明植物研究所生物多样性与生物地理学重点实验室, 昆明 650201
  • 收稿日期:2012-08-27 接受日期:2013-03-07 出版日期:2013-05-20 发布日期:2013-06-05
  • 通讯作者: 彭华

Diversity and distribution of higher plants in Yunnan, China

Li Chen1,2, Hongjin Dong2, Hua Peng2,*   

  1. 1 Forestry Institute, Southwest Forestry University, Kunming 650224
    2 Biodiversity and Biogeography Key Laboratory of Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650201
  • Received:2012-08-27 Accepted:2013-03-07 Online:2013-05-20 Published:2013-06-05
  • Contact: Peng Hua

摘要:

云南省为我国乃至世界生物多样性的热点区域之一。为深入认识和保护云南的植物多样性, 作者以《云南植物志》为基础, 对其中记载的各物种在云南的县级分布情况进行了统计。结果显示: 云南省高等植物多样性最丰富的为滇西北地区, 其中的玉龙县、贡山县、香格里拉县物种数分别高达4,358种、3,981种和3,874种, 其次为以西双版纳州为主体的南部热带边缘, 其中的勐腊、景洪的物种数也都在3,000种以上; 而以云南高原为主体的滇东和滇中地区植物多样性则较为贫乏, 作者认为这与人们的关注度和野外调查的强度直接相关。云南分布有4,008种特有物种, 4,509种狭域物种, 特有物种的分布规律与总物种相似; 含狭域物种最多的为贡山县(556种), 是唯一超过500种的县。云南省多数物种的分布范围极为狭窄, 64.1%的物种仅分布在1-5个县, 46.0%的特有物种只分布在1个县的范围内。通过以上分析, 作者指出由于此前对云南植物多样性的调查仍不完善, 结果并不能全面反映真实的地带性规律, 建议加大调查深度和标本采集量。如果条件许可, 一些极易沦为濒危种的狭域分布种也应得到优先关注。

关键词: 植物多样性, 特有种, 狭域分布种, 标本, 分布格局

Abstract:

Yunnan Province is a biodiversity hotspot in China that has global significance. In order to further recognize and protect the biodiversity of Yunnan, we examined the basic distributional pattern of its plant diversity based on Flora Yunnanica. According to our analysis, Northwest Yunnan had the highest plant diversity, with Yulong County the most diverse, containing 4,358 species of higher plants, followed by Gongshan County and Xianggelila County, which had 3,981 and 3,874 higher plants respectively. The tropical edge region of southern Yunnan, represented by Xishuangbanna, had the second highest level of diversity, with Mengla County and Jinghong County containing more than 3,000 higher plant species. In contrast, the plant diversity of Eastern and Central Yunnan, comprising mainly the Yunnan Plateau, was deemed relatively poor, possibly reflecting lower attention and field surveys by botanists. Both the distribution patterns of endemic and narrow-ranging species were similar to that for all plants. Yunnan contains 4,008 endemic and 4,509 narrow-ranging species with Gongshan County being most diverse, having more than 500 narrow-ranging species. Most species (64.1%) were distributed in less than five counties in Yunnan, and 46.0% could only be found in one. Our analysis reveals that previous field surveys of Yunnan’s plant diversity did not fully reflect the natural zonal regularity and consequently further investigation is warranted. Some narrow-ranging species will be endangered without protection.

Key words: plant diversity, endemic species, narrow-ranging species, specimen, distributional pattern