生物多样性 ›› 2012, Vol. 20 ›› Issue (5): 559-571.DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2012.13124

所属专题: 创刊20周年纪念专刊

• 《生物多样性》创刊20年纪念专刊 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国植物引种栽培及迁地保护的现状与展望

黄宏文*(), 张征   

  1. 中国科学院华南植物园, 广州 510650
  • 收稿日期:2012-05-30 接受日期:2012-08-14 出版日期:2012-09-20 发布日期:2012-09-07
  • 通讯作者: 黄宏文
  • 作者简介:*E-mail: huanghw@mail.scbg.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    科技基础性工作专项“植物园迁地保护植物编目及信息标准化”(2009FY120200)

Current status and prospects of ex situ cultivation and conservation of plants in China

Hongwen Huang*(), Zheng Zhang   

  1. South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510650
  • Received:2012-05-30 Accepted:2012-08-14 Online:2012-09-20 Published:2012-09-07
  • Contact: Hongwen Huang

摘要:

本文在概要总结我国植物引种驯化和迁地保育的历史基础上, 全面综述了中国植物园迁地保育植物的现状和特点、中国农作物种质资源保护现状、野生植物种子库的进展。我国植物园迁地栽培植物约396个科、3,633个属, 23,340个种; 我国农作物资源保存数量达到41.2万份, 涉及作物种及近缘种1,890个; 我国野生生物种质资源库收集植物种子5.4万份、7,271种植物。文章同时阐述了我国植物迁地保护存在的问题并对相关领域的未来发展进行了展望: (1)启动《中国迁地栽培植物志》编研计划; (2)部署迁地保护与就地保护的整合研究; (3)加强我国特有植物类群的迁地保育原理和方法研究; (4)促进基于迁地保育濒危植物的野外回归: (5)拓展重要植物资源的评价及发掘利用。

关键词: 迁地保护, 引种栽培, 种质资源, 濒危植物, 植物园

Abstract

This review paper summarizes the history of plant introduction and acclimatization in China, and reviews the current status and progress of plant ex situ conservation. Overall, a total of 23,340 species belonging to 3,633 genera, and 396 families are maintained in botanical gardens, whereas 412,000 accessions of 1,890 crop or crop relatives species are preserved in Chinese national crop germplasm banks and 54,000 accessions of 7,271 wild plants in Chinese germplasm bank of wild species. The paper also discussed problems and challenges in plant ex situ conservation and outlooked further development in future: (1) Initiation of “Ex situ Cultivated Flora of China project”; (2) development of integrating research of ex situ and in situ plant conservation; (3) enhancing research in ex situ conservation theory and methodology for endemic plants of China; (4) facilitating restoration and recovery of rare and endangered plants into wild on basis of ex situ conservation; and (5) strengthening evaluation and utilization of economic important plants.

Key words: ex situ conservation, plant introduction and cultivation, germplasm, threatened and endangered plants, botanical garden