生物多样性 ›› 2012, Vol. 20 ›› Issue (4): 411-419.DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2012.09219

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

卡拉麦里山有蹄类自然保护区蒙古野驴生境适宜性评价

林杰1,2, 徐文轩1,2, 杨维康1,*(), 夏参军1,2, 刘伟3   

  1. 1 中国科学院干旱区生物地理与生物资源重点实验室, 中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所, 乌鲁木齐 830011
    2 中国科学院研究生院, 北京 100049
    3 四川大学生命科学学院, 成都 610064
  • 收稿日期:2011-12-04 接受日期:2012-04-01 出版日期:2012-07-20 发布日期:2012-09-12
  • 通讯作者: 杨维康
  • 作者简介:*E-mail: yangwk@ms.xjb.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    中国科学院外国专家特聘研究员计划(2009Z2-5);国家国际科技合作计划(2010DFA92720);中国意大利国际合作项目(0866031)

Habitat suitability assessment of Equus hemionus hemionus in Kalamaili Mountain Nature Reserve

Jie Lin1,2, Wenxuan Xu1,2, Weikang Yang1,*(), Canjun Xia1,2, Wei Liu3   

  1. 1 Key Laboratory of Biogeography and Bioresource in Arid Land, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011
    2 Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
    3 School of Life Sciences, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064
  • Received:2011-12-04 Accepted:2012-04-01 Online:2012-07-20 Published:2012-09-12
  • Contact: Weikang Yang

摘要:

为加强蒙古野驴(Equus hemionus hemionus)的生境保护及管理工作, 作者以2005年以来在卡拉麦里山有蹄类自然保护区的野外调查数据为基础, 在地理信息系统(GIS)支持下, 以距水源点距离、坡度、植被类型和人类活动为评价因子, 采用生境评价模型, 对蒙古野驴的生境进行了适宜性评价。不考虑人类活动影响下, 春、夏、秋、冬四季潜在总适宜生境面积分别为9,784 km2、8,090 km2、9,379 km2和10,856 km2, 分别占保护区总面积的54.4%、44.9%、52.1%和60.3%。由于受到国道、矿产开采、冬季放牧等人类活动的强烈影响, 研究区内适宜生境大量丧失, 冬季丧失面积最多, 为6,629 km2, 占冬季潜在总适宜面积的61.1%。基于评价结果作者提出了相应的蒙古野驴种群保护措施: (1)加强水源地的保护; (2)限制冬季进入保护区内家畜的数量, 并为蒙古野驴划定预留适宜生境; (3)严格制定进入保护区的制度; (4)拆除迁移路线上的边境围栏或建设野生动物通道, 以保障蒙古野驴正常的迁徙活动, 恢复其种群基因交流。

关键词: Equus hemionus hemionus, 生境评价, 地理信息系统, 人类活动, 卡拉麦里山

Abstract

To improve habitat conservation and management of the Khulan (Equus hemiomus hemionus), we assessed the habitat suitability of this species in the Kalamaili Mountain Nature Reserve. Distance from water point, slope, vegetation type and human activities were selected as factors for habitat suitability assessment, and the habitat evaluation model for the assessment was conducted with GIS. In the absence of human activities, the total area of potential suitable habitat was 9,784 km2, 8,090 km2, 9,379 km2 and 10,856 km2 during the four seasons, accounting for 54.4%, 44.9%, 52.1% and 60.3% of the total reserve area, respectively. However, the reserve was negatively affected by a national highway, mine exploration, and grazing livestock. As a result, a large amount of suitable habitats were lost in the reserve. Especially in winter, nearly 6,629 km2 of suitable habitats were lost in the reserve, which accounts for 61.1% of suitable habitat during these months. Based on these results, the following measures were put forward to protect the population of Khulan: (1) strengthen protection of water resources; (2) limit the population size of livestock in the reserve during winter months; (3) regulate and/or restrict human activities in the reserve; and (4) remove border fences and rebuild the population migration and connection routes for the Khulan between China and Mongolia.

Key words: Equus hemionus hemionus, habitat assessment, GIS, human activity, Kalamaili Mountain