生物多样性 ›› 2020, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (10): 1202-1212.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2020009

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

丹江口水库鱼类群落特征及其历史变化

白敬沛1, 黄耿1,*(), 蒋长军1, 章伟成1, 王齐东2, 姚伦广1,*()   

  1. 1 南阳师范学院南水北调中线水源区水安全河南省协同创新中心, 河南省南水北调中线水源区生态安全重点实验室, 河南省南水北调水源区水安全院士工作站, 河南南阳 473061
    2 中国科学院水生生物研究所淡水生态与生物技术国家重点实验室, 武汉 430072
  • 收稿日期:2020-01-08 接受日期:2020-05-19 出版日期:2020-10-20 发布日期:2020-10-20
  • 通讯作者: 黄耿,姚伦广
  • 作者简介:E-mail: wangyoukl@126.com;
  • 基金资助:
    河南省重点研发与推广专项(192102310305);南阳师范学院博士专项(2019ZX025)

Characteristics and historical changes of the fish assemblage in the Danjiangkou Reservoir

Jingpei Bai1, Geng Huang1,*(), Changjun Jiang1, Weicheng Zhang1, Qidong Wang2, Lunguang Yao1,*()   

  1. 1 Collaborative Innovation Center of Water Security for Water Source Region of Mid-line of South-to-North Diversion Project of Henan Province, Henan Provincal Key Laboratory of Ecological Security for Water Source Region of Mid-line of South-to-North Diversion Project, Henan Provincal Academician Workstation of Water Security, Nanyang Normal University, Nanyang, Henan 473061
    2 State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072
  • Received:2020-01-08 Accepted:2020-05-19 Online:2020-10-20 Published:2020-10-20
  • Contact: Geng Huang,Lunguang Yao

摘要:

为了解丹江口水库鱼类群落现状及历史变化, 作者于2018-2019年采用多网目复合刺网采样和渔民渔获物调查的方式对丹江口水库进行了鱼类群落调查。本次调查共采集鱼类33种, 隶属5目11科29属, 以鲤科鱼类为主, 占总数的63.6%。基于多网目复合刺网采样的鱼类群落多样性指数和单位努力捕捞量(catch per unit effort, CPUE, g·day -1·m -2)在各采样点间具有一定的差异。目前丹江口水库以定居性、喜静缓流、杂食性和肉食性鱼类为主。与20世纪50年代和80年代的历史资料相比, 丹江口水库鱼类物种丰富度先升高后下降; 而生态类型则呈现杂食性鱼类、喜流水性鱼类和洄游性鱼类比例持续下降的趋势。2018-2019年丹江口水库鱼类组成与20世纪80年代的相似性指数为0.35 (中等不相似), 与20世纪50年代的相似性指数为0.29 (中等不相似)。调查结果表明半个世纪以来丹江口水库鱼类群落结构发生了较大变化, 目前趋于小型化和简单化。这些变化可能是由大坝建设、渔业放养、不合理捕捞、外来鱼类引入等人类活动所致。

关键词: 鱼类群落, 历史变化, 生态类型, 人类活动, 丹江口水库

Abstract:

To quantify the fish assemblage and its historical change, we conducted surveys in the Danjiangkou Reservoir in 2018 and 2019 based on multi-mesh gillnet samplings and catch by fisheries. A total of 33 fish species were collected, belonging to 5 orders, 11 families, and 29 genera, among which Cyprinidae were dominant, accounting for 63.6% of the total species captured. Spatial variation of diversity indices and catch per unit effort (CPUE, g·day -1·m -2) based on gillnet samplings were calculated among sampling sites. Currently, the Danjiangkou Reservoir is dominated by sedentary, lentic, omnivorous and carnivorous fishes. Compared with historical data from the 1950s and 1980s, the number of total fish species in the reservoir increased and then subsequently decreased. Whereas the proportion of omnivorous species, lotic species, and migratory species showed a continuous decline. The similarity indices of species composition between the present and the 1950s and 1980s were 0.35 and 0.29, respectively (both medium dissimilarity). These results indicate that the current fish assemblage in the Danjiangkou Reservoir has undergone significant changes in the last half-century trending toward smaller species and simpler assemblages, which may be attributed to human activities such as dam construction, fish stocking, overfishing, and the introduction of non-native fish species.

Key words: fish assemblage, historical change, ecological type, human activity, the Danjiangkou Reservoir