生物多样性 ›› 2021, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (11): 1481-1489.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2021085

• 研究报告:动物多样性 • 上一篇    下一篇

菲律宾海脊索动物多样性评估: 基于OBIS数据库

王梦霞, 陈心怡, 张洁, 宋宇航, 杨娟()   

  1. 中国地质大学(北京)海洋学院, 北京 100083
  • 收稿日期:2021-03-09 接受日期:2021-07-14 出版日期:2021-11-20 发布日期:2021-11-12
  • 通讯作者: 杨娟
  • 作者简介:E-mail: yangjuan@cugb.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    中国地质大学(北京)大学生创新性实验计划项目

Biodiversity of Chordata in the Philippine Sea: A case study based on OBIS

Mengxia Wang, Xinyi Chen, Jie Zhang, Yuhang Song, Juan Yang()   

  1. School of Ocean Sciences, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083
  • Received:2021-03-09 Accepted:2021-07-14 Online:2021-11-20 Published:2021-11-12
  • Contact: Juan Yang

摘要:

菲律宾海邻近全球生物多样性和进化的中心, 分布着多种重要生物资源。了解本区生物多样性及受威胁物种的分布特征可对掌握其生物多样性现状, 以及未来实施有效的生物多样性保护管理策略提供重要依据。本文利用海洋生物地理信息系统(Ocean Biogeographic Information System, OBIS)数据库, 并参考世界自然保护联盟濒危物种红色名录(IUCN Redlist)的物种濒危程度评估结果, 构建了菲律宾海脊索动物生物多样性和受威胁物种数据库, 结合海洋生态因子特征对该海区脊索动物的物种多样性和不同等级受威胁物种的数量空间分布格局进行了初步分析, 并对脊索动物不同分类阶元生物多样性与生态因子的关系进行了相关性分析。结果表明, 本区海洋脊索动物门已报道11纲56目320科1,171属2,876种。其中在菲律宾海的边缘区域, 特别是菲律宾群岛、台湾岛、日本群岛、马里亚纳群岛及中央的九州-帕劳海脊附近海域, 生物多样性水平相对较高, 而中央海盆区的生物多样性较低。本海域鱼类生物多样性尤其丰富, 共计4纲45目292科1,105属2,768种, 在物种水平上占本区脊索动物物种数的96%。各分类阶元水平的多样性与初级生产力呈显著正相关, 而与水深呈显著负相关。本区脊索动物门受威胁物种共计54种, 其中极危3种、濒危5种、易危22种、近危24种, 分别约占全区脊索动物总种数的0.10%、0.17%、0.76%、0.83%。与本区生物多样性分布格局相似, 受威胁物种多分布于菲律宾海边缘区域, 在中央海脊和深水盆地区域分布较少。本研究表明, 对菲律宾海脊索动物特别是受威胁物种的保护应当以边缘区域优先; 但考虑到当前菲律宾海深海区域生物多样性数据的不足, 也应加强对中央海脊和深水盆地等区域的生物多样性普查。

关键词: 海洋生物地理信息系统, 菲律宾海, 脊索动物门, 生物多样性, 受威胁物种

Abstract

AimsThe Philippine Sea is a habitat that produces many important biological resources. The purpose of this paper is to summarize baseline data on the distribution of marine Chordata biodiversity with threatened status, and provide suggestions for conservation planning for marine biodiversity in the Philippine Sea.
Methods In this paper, the Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS) and the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (IUCN Redlist) were used to collect and assess current biodiversity data of Chordata in the Philippine Sea. A list of Chordata species with threatened status in the Philippine Sea was compiled and sorted. A visualization of the spatial distribution of biodiversity at different taxonomic and threatened levels in this area was also produced. The relationships between the richness at varying taxonomic levels and environmental factors, such as net primary productivity, surface sea temperature, and water depth in the Philippine Sea were also explored by correlation analysis.
Result The results showed that the 2,876 species in the phylum of Chordata in this region belong to 11 classes, 56 orders, 320 families, 1,171 genera. The richness at varying taxonomic levels was high in the waters near the Philippine Islands, Taiwan Island, Japanese Island, the Kyushu Palau ridge, and Mariana Islands, while the richness in the central basin of the Philippine Sea was low. The taxonomic richness and species abundance were positively correlated with primary productivity, but negatively correlated with water depth significantly. Among them, 4 classes, 45 orders, 292 families, 1,105 genera and 2,768 species of fish were recorded in this area, accounting for 96% of the total Chordata species based on the OBIS. Moreover, 54 species of Chordata were included in the IUCN Redlist in this area; these included 3 critically endangered species, 5 endangered species, 22 vulnerable species and 24 near threatened species, accounting for 0.10%, 0.17%, 0.76%, and 0.83% of the total Chordata species, respectively. Like the distribution of biodiversity in this area, the threatened species were mainly localized near the edge and the central ridge of the Philippine Sea, and less so in the central deep-water basin.
Conclusion Based on the results, biodiversity protection measures for Chordata fauna in the Philippine Sea, especially for threatened species, should place the priority on the marginal areas. Due to the insufficient data on deep-sea biodiversity in the Philippine Sea, more surveying efforts should be invested in this area, particularly in the central ridge and deep-water basin.

Key words: Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS), Philippine Sea, Chordata, biodiversity, threatened species