生物多样性 ›› 2012, Vol. 20 ›› Issue (6): 685-692.DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2012.08065

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

南海北部夜光藻种群的时空分布及其环境适应性

王雨, 叶又茵, 林茂*(), 陈兴群   

  1. 国家海洋局第三海洋研究所, 厦门 361005
  • 收稿日期:2012-03-01 接受日期:2012-08-07 出版日期:2012-11-20 发布日期:2013-01-04
  • 通讯作者: 林茂
  • 作者简介:* E-mail: lm3011@126.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家908专项成果集成(908-ZC-Ⅱ-02);科技部海洋公益性行业科研专项(200805064);科技部海洋公益性行业科研专项(200905009-3);国家海洋局青年海洋科学基金(2009130)

Spatial-temporal distribution of a Noctiluca scintillans population and its adaption to environmental conditions in northern South China Sea

Yu Wang, Youyin Ye, Mao Lin**(), Xingqun Chen   

  1. Third Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Xiamen 361005
  • Received:2012-03-01 Accepted:2012-08-07 Online:2012-11-20 Published:2013-01-04
  • Contact: Mao Lin*

摘要:

依据“中国近海海洋综合调查与评价”专项(908专项)的南海北部大尺度海区(107°00′-119°00′ E, 16°00′- 24°00′ N)夜光藻(Noctiluca scintillans)种群调查数据, 利用地理信息系统(geographic information system, GIS)栅格内值功能进行空间局部插值, 从而构建空间格局分析模板, 对南海北部夜光藻种群的空间分布及季节变化进行了分析, 并探讨夜光藻对温度、盐度和营养盐的适应特性。结果表明, 南海北部夜光藻细胞丰度的变化范围在0.001×104- 64.5×104cells/m3, 周年平均为(0.56 ± 3.29)×10 4cells/m3(n = 1,424), 春季>秋季>冬季>夏季, 最高为(1.28 ± 4.24)× 104cells/m3(n=356), 最低为(0.19 ± 0.95)×104cells/m3(n=356)。夜光藻细胞丰度总体呈现出近岸高于远海, 且在近海海域呈斑块状分布的格局。雷州半岛东部近岸周年均是夜光藻密集的区域, 且是冬季的最高丰度区; 南海北部大部分海域周年则是夜光藻丰度最低的区域; 粤东大鹏湾及珠江口邻近海域在夏冬两季并未成为丰度高值区; 海南岛东南部近岸在夏季有较高丰度的夜光藻。与1958-1959年全国海洋综合调查在南海北部的数据资料相比, 夜光藻细胞丰度猛增, 高于1959年平均丰度27倍余, 季节差异变大, 密集区变得更明显。南海夜光藻种群具有更高的适温属性, 有别于东海、黄海、渤海夜光藻种群。盐度的正常波动一般对夜光藻丰度变化没有明显的影响。夜光藻大量繁殖并不直接依赖于高营养盐环境, 水体富营养化程度并不能单独地作为预判夜光藻增殖暴发的标准。

关键词: 南海北部, Noctiluca scintillans, 空间分布, 季节变化, 环境适应性

Abstract

Based on the data of a Noctiluca scintillans population in northern South China Sea (107°00′- 119°00′E, 16°00′-24°00′N) obtained in project “Integrated Investigation and Assessment of China Seas” (coded as 908 project) in 2006 and 2008, we described the spatial distribution in wide geographical areas and seasonal variations of a Noctiluca scintillans population using GIS spatial analysis modeling and mapping techniques. The adaption of Noctiluca scintillans to temperature, salinity and nutrients were also discussed. The results showed that abundance of Noctiluca scintillans varied from 0.001×10 4cells/m3 to 64.5×104cells/m3, with an average of (0.56±3.29)×104cells/m3(n = 1,424). Average abundance varied by season, spring > autumn > winter > summer, with highest and lowest abundances of (1.28±4.24)×104cells/m3 (n = 356) and (0.19±0.95)×104cells/m3(n = 356), respectively. The spatial distribution of Noctiluca scintillans generally decreased from alongshore to offshore areas, in a pattern of discontinuous patches. Abundance assemblage zones laid along the shores of eastern Leizhou peninsula, where it was also the peak abundance region in winter. The zones of low annunal abundance were primarily in the northern South China Sea. Dapeng Bay in eastern Guangdong Province and Pearl River Estuary were not abundance assemblage zones during summer and winter months. We found the shore of southeastern Hainan Island became high abundance zones during summer months. Compared with data of national integrated investigations completed in 1958 and 1959, Noctiluca scintillans abundance increased abruptly with an evident change of abundance assemblage zones. The seasonal variation was obvious. Average Noctiluca scintillans abundance was 27 times higher than recorded in 1959. Noctiluca scintillans populations in South China Sea required a much higher temperature than it did in East, Yellow and Bohai Seas in China. Salinity fluctuations were normally not a critical factor determining variation in Noctiluca scintillans abundance. High Noctiluca scintillans abundance was not resulted directly from high nutrient content. Water eutrophication was not the necessary condition to predict the Noctiluca scintillans bloom.

Key words: northern South China Sea, Noctiluca scintillans, spatial distribution, seasonal variation, environmental adaption