生物多样性 ›› 2021, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (7): 918-926.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2020438

• 研究报告:动物多样性 • 上一篇    下一篇

川西高原三种雉类与其捕食者赤狐的空间关系

邹博研1,2, 罗概1,2, 朱博伟1,2, 冉江洪1,2,*(), 房超3   

  1. 1.四川大学生命科学学院生物资源与生态环境教育部重点实验室, 成都 610065
    2.四川大学生命科学学院四川省濒危野生动物保护生物学重点实验室, 成都 610065
    3.成都市雷雀生态环保科技有限公司, 成都 610065
  • 收稿日期:2020-11-25 接受日期:2021-03-06 出版日期:2021-07-20 发布日期:2021-03-11
  • 通讯作者: 冉江洪
  • 作者简介:* E-mail: rjhong-01@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    第二次青藏高原综合科学考察研究项目(2019QZKK0402);全国第二次陆生野生动物资源调查项目

The spatial distribution relationship between three pheasant species and mutual predator, the red fox (Vulpes vulpes), on the Western Sichuan Plateau

Boyan Zou1,2, Gai Luo1,2, Bowei Zhu1,2, Jianghong Ran1,2,*(), Chao Fang3   

  1. 1 Key Laboratory of Bio-Resource and Eco-Environment of Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065
    2 Sichuan Key Laboratory of Conservation Biology on Endangered Wildlife, College of Life Sciences, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065
    3 Chengdu Leique Ecology & Environmental Protection Technology Co. Ltd., Chengdu 610065
  • Received:2020-11-25 Accepted:2021-03-06 Online:2021-07-20 Published:2021-03-11
  • Contact: Jianghong Ran

摘要:

物种的空间分布会受到种间相互作用(如捕食关系等)和环境变量等多种因素共同影响。阐明环境变量和种间相互作用对同域物种空间分布关系的影响, 对于理解群落聚集和生物多样性的维持机制至关重要。为了解川西高原常见雉类与捕食者的空间分布关系及其驱动因素, 本研究利用2016-2018年在川西高原84个红外相机位点获得的682张目标物种的独立照片, 采用条件型双物种占域模型(conditional two-species occupancy model)在相机位点尺度评估了在川西高原广泛分布的黄喉雉鹑(Tetraophasis szechenyii)、血雉(Ithaginis cruentus)和白马鸡(Crossoptilon crossoptilon)与其捕食者赤狐(Vulpes vulpes)的空间分布关系。结果显示: (1)在物种作用和环境变量的共同影响下, 赤狐和血雉(物种相互作用因子, species interaction factor, SIF = 1.31 ± 0.14)与赤狐和黄喉雉鹑(SIF = 1.42 ± 0.41)在研究区域内的空间分布趋于重合, 赤狐和血雉的空间关系随距河流距离的增加呈现先重合后趋于分离的趋势, 而赤狐和黄喉雉鹑的空间关系随距河流距离的增加呈现出由重合转为分离的趋势。赤狐与白马鸡在空间分布上相互独立(SIF = 1), 白马鸡的空间分布主要受环境因子影响, 而赤狐对其没有影响。(2) 3种雉类的探测率受物种作用的影响, 在相机位点尺度上赤狐的存在减少了3种雉类的探测率(pB > rB)。本研究为物种空间分布关系的研究提供了新的案例, 也为理解物种共存机制和生物多样性保护提供了科学依据。

关键词: 空间分布, 捕食关系, 红外相机, 占域模型

Abstract

Aims: Multiple interspecific factors such as predator-prey dynamics and responses to different environmental variables collectively influence the spatial distribution of wildlife species. To be able to understand how these mechanisms influence community aggregation and biodiversity stability, it is crucial to understand role these factors play in impacting the formation of spatial distribution patterns among sympatric species.
Methods: Here, we investigated the spatial distribution correlations and driving factors of three pheasant species commonly seen or surveyed on the Western Sichuan Plateau. We combined a total of 682 independent photos obtained from 84 infrared camera traps from 2016 to 2018 with conditional two-species occupancy model. We then used the model operation to assess the spatial distribution relations on the camera site scale. We used this model operation for each of the three pheasant species (the buff-throated partridge Tetraophasis szechenyii, blood pheasant Ithaginis cruentus, and the white eared-pheasant Crossoptilon crossoptilon) and their predator the red fox which can also be found over a wide area in the Western Sichuan Plateau.
Results: We had two major results from our analyses. First, under the synergic-influence of species interactions and environmental variables, the spatial distribution of the red fox and the blood pheasant (species interaction factor, SIF = 1.31 ± 0.14) was similar to that of the red fox and the buff-throated partridge (SIF = 1.42 ± 0.41). Both these pairs tended to have a great overlap within the study area. Additionally, the spatial distribution between the red fox and the blood pheasant would overlap in some large areas and then spatial distribution overlapped decreased with the increasing distance to rivers. The spatial relationship between the red fox and the buff-throated partridge were exhibited a different trend, which has been a consistently falling overlap ratio tendency since the distance from camera site to rivers began to increase. The red fox and the white eared-pheasant shared independent distribution patterns with each other (SIF = 1). Environmental variables were a strong predictor for the spatial distribution pattern of white-eared pheasants. However, environmental variables hardly had any impact on the distribution strategy for the red fox. The second major result was that the detection probabilities for all three pheasant species was associated with the synergic-influence of species interactions. The presence of red fox practically reduced the detection probability for all three pheasant species on the site scale (pB > rB).
Conclusion: Results from this experiment provide a new up to date case study (with solid scientific basis) that focused on species distribution relationships, and help us understand the importance of species coexistence and biodiversity conservation.

Key words: spatial distribution, predator-prey relationships, camera traps, occupancy model