生物多样性 ›› 2008, Vol. 16 ›› Issue (2): 133-142.DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2008.07286

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国野生大豆的遗传多样性和生态特异性分析

丁艳来, 赵团结, 盖钧镒*()   

  1. 南京农业大学大豆研究所/国家大豆改良中心/作物遗传与种质创新国家重点实验室, 南京 210095
  • 收稿日期:2007-09-10 接受日期:2008-01-02 出版日期:2008-03-20 发布日期:2008-02-20
  • 通讯作者: 盖钧镒
  • 作者简介:*E-mail:sri@njau.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(30671266);国家自然科学基金(30490250);国家重点基础研究发展规划项目(2006CB101708);国家863项目(2006AA100104);国家科技支撑计划项目(2006BAD13B05-7);长江学者和创新团队发展计划资助项目(PCSIRT);教育部高等学校创新引智计划(B08025)

Genetic diversity and ecological differentiation of Chinese annual wild soybean (Glycine soja)

Yanlai Ding, Tuanjie Zhao, Junyi Gai*()   

  1. Soybean Research Institute of Nanjing Agricultural University, National Center of Soybean Improvement, and National Key Laboratory for Crop Genetics and Germplasm Enhancement, Nanjing 210095
  • Received:2007-09-10 Accepted:2008-01-02 Online:2008-03-20 Published:2008-02-20
  • Contact: Junyi Gai

摘要:

野生大豆(Glycine soja)是栽培大豆的祖先, 为东亚特有种, 大部分分布在中国。我们采用52对SSR引物和10个植物学性状, 以遗传丰富度和Simpson多样性指数为指标, 对来自中国3个地理生态区域涉及24个省区的196份野生大豆所构成的代表性样本的遗传变异进行了研究, 以期从分子水平和表型水平两个层面上揭示中国野生大豆遗传多样性和地理生态特异性。结果表明: 中国野生大豆群体SSR位点的等位基因平均丰富度 (NA)和平均Simpson多样性指数(H)分别为16.1和0.852, 高于栽培大豆 (NA = 11.4, H = 0.773), 野生群体的遗传多样性明显高于栽培群体。3个地理生态群体中南方群体多样性最高(NA = 12.9, H= 0.842), 黄淮海群体最低(NA= 11.4, H= 0.805), 东北群体居中(NA= 12.5, H= 0.834)。群体间存在遗传分化, 不同群体具有不同的特异等位基因, 位点AW132402 (A2连锁群)、Satt522 (F)、satt150 (M)、Sat_332 (D1a)、Satt046 (K)、sct_190 (K)等的一些等位基因只在特定群体出现, 表现出群体分化后的生态特异性。中国野生大豆植物学性状的群体变异丰富, 平均Simpson多样性指数为0.710。地理群体间存在分化, 最明显的是生育期性状的分化, 反映了地理、光照和温度等生态因子的选择作用, 其中南方地理群体多样性最高(H = 0.671)。SSR分子标记和植物学性状所获结果相对一致, 表明中国野生大豆地理群体间性状分化有其遗传分化的基础。

关键词: Glycine soja, SSR标记, 植物学性状, 遗传多样性, 遗传分化

Abstract

The annual wild soybean (Glycine soja), known as the ancestor of the cultivated soybean (G. max), is endemic to East Asia with most of its range in China. It is believed that the wild soybean holds a reservoir of genetic variation potentially useful for improvement of cultivated soybeans. Our study combined molecular techniques with evaluation of botanical traits to investigate genetic diversity and genetic specificity caused by geographic differentiation in wild soybean populations in China. A total of 196 wild accessions from three distinct geographic regions (Northeast China, Huang-Huai-Hai Valleys and South China, abbreviated as NEC, HHH and SOC, respectively) were genotyped using 52 SSR markers and phenotyped using 10 botanical traits. The average allelic richness (NA) of the entire wild population and Simpson diversity index (H) were 16.1 and 0.852, respectively; higher than those of cultivated populations (NA = 11.4, H = 0.773). Among the three geographic populations, the SOC population had the highest genetic diversity (NA = 12.9, H = 0.842), the NEC population the next highest (NA = 12.4 and H = 0.834), and the HHH population the lowest (NA = 11.4, H = 0.805). Population-specific alleles existed on a number of loci (including AW132402 (Linkage group A2), Satt522 (F), satt150 (M), Sat_332 (D1a), Satt046 (K), sct_190 (K), thus indicating the existence of genetic differentiation among, and ecological specificity of geographic populations. Analysis of botanical traits revealed high variation, diversity (H= 0.710) and geographic differentiation, especially in growth period traits. These differences in botanical traits indicate the significance of natural selection due to geographic variation in day-length and temperature. Analysis of molecular data and botanical traits indicated that the geographic differentiation observed in botanical traits was based on genetic differentiation, and that genetic diversity of the SOC population was higher than the other two populations.

Key words: Glycine soja, SSR marker, botanical traits, genetic diversity, genetic differentiation