生物多样性 ›› 2021, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (11): 1565-1575.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2021193

• 生物编目 • 上一篇    

莫古礼(Floyd Alonzo McClure)在华采集和引种竹类植物的历史及其影响

吴仁武, 南歆格, 晏海, 杨凡, 史琰, 包志毅()   

  1. 浙江农林大学风景园林与建筑学院, 杭州 311300
  • 收稿日期:2021-05-14 接受日期:2021-06-25 出版日期:2021-11-20 发布日期:2021-11-12
  • 通讯作者: 包志毅
  • 作者简介:E-mail: bao99928@188.com
  • 基金资助:
    教育部人文社会科学研究一般项目(21YJC770026);浙江农林大学科研发展基金(2021FR030)

The history and influence of bamboo collection and introduction from China by Floyd Alonzo McClure

Renwu Wu, Xinge Nan, Hai Yan, Fan Yang, Yan Shi, Zhiyi Bao()   

  1. College of Landscape Architecture, Zhejiang A&F University, Hangzhou 311300
  • Received:2021-05-14 Accepted:2021-06-25 Online:2021-11-20 Published:2021-11-12
  • Contact: Zhiyi Bao

摘要:

竹类植物是美国采集者在我国采集和引种的一类主要植物。在众多的竹类植物采集者中, 莫古礼(Floyd Alonzo McClure)是最具代表性的一位, 他于1919-1940年在岭南大学开展竹类植物研究, 在此期间多次采集竹类植物标本并引种竹类植物到美国。本研究通过大量文献研究、档案查阅以及实地调研, 整理了莫古礼采集竹类植物的路线和采集地, 并对竹类植物学名进行校对, 分析了莫古礼在华研究、采集和引种竹类植物的历史及其影响。经统计, 莫古礼在华期间竹类植物标本采集地涉及12个省级行政区39个地级市, 主要集中在广东、海南、香港等地; 引种地涉及9个省级行政区的25个地级市; 共采集竹类植物标本727号1,840份, 隶属20属93种(含种下单位, 下同), 分别占我国竹类植物属和种的58.8%和17.4%; 共引种竹类植物255份, 隶属于17属77种, 分别占我国竹类植物属和种的50.0%和14.4%。莫古礼在华采集和引种竹类植物极大地发展了竹类植物分类学, 所采集的竹类植物标本为后人竹类植物研究提供了极大的帮助, 所引种的竹类植物极大丰富了美国竹类植物种类, 也促进了竹类植物在美国的应用。

关键词: 中国, 美国, 竹类植物, 标本采集, 引种史

Abstract

Aim: Bamboo is one of the main collecting targets in China and has been widely introduced to the United States. Among the numerous collectors of bamboo, Floyd Alonzo McClure has made the biggest impact. During his research at Lingnan University from 1919 to 1940, he collected bamboo specimens and introduced bamboo to the United States many times. In order to understand the history of collection and introduction of plants from China to the United States, it is necessary to investigate the history of McClure’s collection and introduction of bamboo in China.
Method: We conducted an extensive review of the literature and collection archives to sort out the route, collection locations, and scientific names of bamboo collected by McClure. We analyzed the history of McClure’s research, collection and introduction of bamboo in China.
Results: During McClure’s research in China, there were a total of 12 provinces (39 prefecture-level cities), where bamboo was collected. Guangdong, Hainan, and Hong Kong were the locality where the most bamboo was collected. There were a total of 9 provinces and 25 prefecture-level cities where bamboo was introduced. Of these introduced bamboos, a total of 1,840 sheets and 727 numbers bamboo specimens were collected, belonging to 93 species from 20 genera (including subspecies units, the same below). This accounts for 58.8% of bamboo genera and 17.4% of bamboo species in China. A total of 255 bamboos were introduced, belonging to 77 species of 17 genera, accounting for 14.4% of the species and 50.0% of the genera in China, respectively.
Conclusions: McClure’s collection and introduction of bamboo in China was important for the development of bamboo taxonomy. The bamboo specimens collected by McClure were invaluable for subsequent bamboo research. The bamboo introduced by McClure greatly enriched bamboo species in the United States and also helped promote the application of bamboo in the United States.

Key words: China, The United States, bamboo, specimen collection, introduction history