生物多样性 ›› 2021, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (2): 160-166.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2021018

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中国麋鹿种群重建35年: 历程、成就与挑战

白加德1,2, 张渊媛1,2,*(), 钟震宇1,2, 程志斌1,2, 曹明3, 孟玉萍1,2   

  1. 1.北京生物多样性保护研究中心, 北京 100076
    2.北京麋鹿生态实验中心, 北京 100076
    3.中国环境科学研究院国家环境保护区域生态过程与功能评估重点实验室, 北京 100012
  • 收稿日期:2021-01-13 接受日期:2021-02-01 出版日期:2021-02-20 发布日期:2021-02-08
  • 通讯作者: 张渊媛
  • 作者简介:* E-mail: zhang.yuanyuan@hotmail.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家林业和草原局“麋鹿、野马种群扩散与扩大放归(2020)”;“麋鹿疫病防治及健康管理的关键技术集成研究(2020)”

The 35th anniversary of the reintroduction of Milu deer to China: History, population status, achievements and challenges

Jiade Bai1,2, Yuanyuan Zhang1,2,*(), Zhenyu Zhong1,2, Zhibin Cheng1,2, Ming Cao3, Yuping Meng1,2   

  1. 1 Beijing Biodiversity Conservation Research Center, Beijing 100076
    2 Beijing Milu Ecological Research Center, Beijing 100076
    3 State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Regional Eco-process and Function Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012
  • Received:2021-01-13 Accepted:2021-02-01 Online:2021-02-20 Published:2021-02-08
  • Contact: Yuanyuan Zhang

摘要:

迁地保护是《生物多样性公约》的重要内容, 是“爱知生物多样性目标”的目标之一, 也是《中国生物多样性保护战略与行动计划》(2011‒2030)的战略任务和优先行动。麋鹿(Elaphurus davidianus)是国家I级重点保护野生动物。中国麋鹿经历了本土野外灭绝、圈养种群引至国外、国外圈养种群重引入国内、种群复壮、迁地保护、放归野外, 最终建立野生种群的历程。北京麋鹿苑自1985年重引入38只后, 于1991年就已恢复到60‒80只的麋鹿基础种群。种群扩大后, 逐年向外输出, 35年来共计输出546只, 苑内数量维持在150只左右。江苏大丰1986年引入麋鹿39只, 于1990年达到78只的基础种群, 2019年底种群数量发展至5,016只, 是建群时的129倍。大丰自1995年开始向外输出麋鹿, 至2020年底共计输出164只。麋鹿分布点从重引入时的2个发展至2020年的81个, 已几乎全面覆盖麋鹿灭绝前原有的栖息地。其中野生种群分布在6处, 数量总计达2,855只。中国麋鹿野生种群的重建是野生动物迁地保护和回归自然的典范, 为全球野外灭绝野生动物种的保护贡献了中国智慧。然而, 当前麋鹿保护也遇到诸多挑战: (1)尚没有国家层级的麋鹿保护整体规划, 缺乏统一的监测平台与规范; (2)麋鹿遗传多样性匮乏, 种群抗风险能力差; (3)野生种群分布不广, 且数量较小, 不利于野生种群的稳定性; (4)麋鹿种群与环境承载力的矛盾凸显, 不利于麋鹿种群的健康发展; (5)麋鹿保护缺乏国际交流机制, 不利于麋鹿相关研究的国际交流。因此, 麋鹿的保护和研究仍任重道远, 今后需加强各地麋鹿种群生态监测, 建立麋鹿共享数据库; 采用技术手段增加遗传多样性, 建立麋鹿种质资源库; 建立更多野生种群, 以增加麋鹿野生种群的稳定性, 使这一野外灭绝物种能够真正实现自然回归。

关键词: 中国, 麋鹿, 迁地保护, 种群重建

Abstract:

Background & Aims: Ex-situ conservation is an important part of the Convention on Biological Diversity, one of the objectives of the “Aichi Biodiversity Targets” and a strategic task and priority action of the China Biodiversity Conservation Strategy and Action Plan (2011‒2030). Milu (Père David’s deer) (Elaphurus davidianus) is listed as Class I National Key Protected Species of China. Before the wild population of Milu deer became extinct in China, captive populations were established overseas, which formed the basis for a reintroduction to China in 1985. Since reintroduction, the native population has become established and has expanded. The starting point for the reintroduction process was Beijing Milu Park, where 38 deer were reintroduced in 1985. After successful expansion of the population, the Beijing Milu Park began to send deer to other parts of the country. This article reviews the history and achievements of the reintroduction of Milu deer to China, examines the status of population development, and identifies challenges for the conservation of this species.
Results: Over the last 35 years, a total of 546 deer have been sent to other locations and, as at January 2021, Beijing Milu Park retains 183 deer in total. Dafeng Nature Reserve in Jiangsu Province is the second pillar of Milu deer’s reintroduction. After 39 deer were reintroduced to Dafeng in 1986, the population expanded to 78 in 1990, and to 5, 016 by the end of 2019, a 129-fold increase in the population since reintroduction. In 1995, Dafeng also began to send Milu deer to other sites across the country and, by the end of 2020, 164 had been sent to other locations. The distribution of Milu deer has expanded from just two sites in 1985‒1986 to 81 in 2020, covering all previous habitats before its extinction. Among these sites, six support wild populations, amounting to 2,855 individuals.
Perspectives & Suggestions: The restoration of the Milu deer population in China is a successful example of ex-situ conservation. However, the conservation of Milu deer faces challenges. There is no master plan for Milu deer conservation at the national level, so a coordinated monitoring platform and guidelines are lacking. Additionally, the Milu deer population lacks genetic diversity and is therefore vulnerable to multiple risks. The distribution of the wild population is limited and the number is small, thus hindering population stability. There is also a growing tension between population development and habitat carrying capacity, which hinders the sustainable growth of the population. In addition, the lack of an international cooperation mechanism hampers international collaboration and communication on Milu deer’s research. For all these reasons and others, the conservation of Milu deer is not secure. This article suggests strengthening ecological monitoring of the Milu deer population and developing a shared database and germplasm databank in order to improve genetic diversity. There is a need to expand the wild population in order to improve population stability, so as to secure the long-term conservation of this once extinct species.

Key words: China, Milu deer, ex-situ conservation, population development