生物多样性 ›› 2021, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (2): 184-192.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2020492

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生物多样性相关传统知识调查与评估: 以澜沧与康定两县域为例

刘冬梅1, 李果1, 李俊生1,*(), 杨京彪2,*(), 肖能文1   

  1. 1.中国环境科学研究院生态研究所, 北京 100012
    2.中央民族大学生命与环境科学学院, 北京 100081
  • 收稿日期:2020-12-31 接受日期:2021-02-18 出版日期:2021-02-20 发布日期:2021-02-26
  • 通讯作者: 李俊生,杨京彪
  • 作者简介:yangjingbiao@muc.edu.cn
    * E-mail: lijsh@craes.org.cn;
  • 基金资助:
    生态环境部生物多样性调查与评估项目(2019HJ2096001006)

Investigation and evaluation of traditional knowledge associated with biodiversity: A case study in Lancang and Kangding ethnic counties

Dongmei Liu1, Guo Li1, Junsheng Li1,*(), Jingbiao Yang2,*(), Nengwen Xiao1   

  1. 1 Institue of Ecology, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012
    2 College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Minzu University of China, Beijing 100081
  • Received:2020-12-31 Accepted:2021-02-18 Online:2021-02-20 Published:2021-02-26
  • Contact: Junsheng Li,Jingbiao Yang

摘要:

本研究依据《县域生物多样性相关传统知识调查与评估技术规定》, 调查评估了云南省澜沧县和四川省康定市两县域生物多样性相关传统知识的分布数量与特征, 分析了传统知识保护与传承状况, 识别了主要受威胁因素和保护空缺, 旨在为我国传统知识保护和民族地区实施传统知识获取与惠益分享制度提供科学依据, 推动《生物多样性公约》与《名古屋议定书》等国际公约的履行。研究结果如下: 分别调查编目澜沧县、康定市的生物多样性相关传统知识145项、98项; 这些传统知识具有明显的地区气候与自然环境特征、生产生活实践特征、传统文化特征和地区社会经济特征; 相关部门在传统知识保护管理方面做出了积极努力, 同时包括习惯法、传统节庆等传统文化和包括祭祀、神山、神林等宗教方式在内的地方社区行动在传统知识保护与传承方面也发挥了重要作用; 生物多样性相关传统知识、创新和做法已被广泛应用于地方社区脱贫攻坚和产业发展; 传统知识保护立法仍不健全、受到威胁、保护意识薄弱及承载传统知识的生物资源减少是制约传统知识保护传承的主要因素。两县域生物多样性相关传统知识丰富, 并且地方社区有效参与了生物多样性相关传统知识的保护与可持续利用。今后应建立传统知识获取与惠益分享国家制度; 加强宣传教育, 提升保护传承意识; 因地制宜开展传统知识保护; 推动传统知识相关生物资源的保护与可持续利用。

关键词: 生物多样性相关传统知识, 调查, 评估, 惠益分享, 县域

Abstract

Aims: Traditional knowledge (TK) associated with biodiversity is one of the important topics outline in the Convention on Biological Diversity and Nagoya Protocol. This study reports the characteristics, main threat factors and protection gaps of TK associated with biodiversity in Lancang County of Yunnan Province and Kangding City of Sichuan Province. The study will provide a scientific basis for promoting the protection of TK, the implementation of TK access and benefit-sharing (ABS) systems in ethnic minority areas, and the adoption of international conventions.
Methods: From 2016 to 2018, we investigated and evaluated TK associated with biodiversity in Lancang County and Kangding City, using the “Technical guidelines for investigation and assessment of TK associated with biological diversity at county level”. We used the snowball sampling method to sample the target groups, determined the holders of TK, and then interviewed key people.
Results: In Lancang County, 145 examples of TK associated with biodiversity were recorded, and 98 examples were recorded in Kangding City. These TK had obvious regional climate and natural environment characteristics, production and life practice characteristics, traditional cultural characteristics and socio-economic characteristics. Relevant government departments made positive efforts in the protection and management of TK, and local community actions, including traditional culture (customary law, rituals, etc.) and religious beliefs (sacrifice, sacred mountain, sacred forest, etc.) also played an important role in the protection and inheritance of TK. TK, innovation and practices associated with biodiversity were widely used in poverty alleviation and industrial development of local communities in Lancang County and Kangding City. The main threats to TK included the imperfect legislation of TK protection, extinction and endangerment, the low awareness of protections and the reduction of biological resources associated with TK.
Conclusion: There is rich TK associated with biodiversity in both examined counties, and local communities effectively participate in the protection and sustainable use of TK. In the future, the relevant departments should establish a national system for TK access and benefit sharing; strengthen publicity and education to enhance the awareness of protection and inheritance; protect TK according to local conditions; and promote the protection and sustainable utilization of biological resources associated with TK.

Key words: traditional knowledge associated with biodiversity, investigation, evaluation, benefit sharing, county level