生物多样性 ›› 2021, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (2): 238-246.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2020445

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《生物多样性公约》审查机制的现状、挑战和展望

于书霞1, 邓梁春1,2,3,*(), 吴琼2, 王真1   

  1. 1.华中农业大学资源与环境学院, 武汉 430070
    2.世界自然基金会, 北京 100037
    3.环境进步中心, 武汉 430070
  • 收稿日期:2020-11-30 接受日期:2021-02-01 出版日期:2021-02-20 发布日期:2021-02-25
  • 通讯作者: 邓梁春
  • 作者简介:* E-mail: lchdeng@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    华中农业大学新进高层次人才科研启动项目和世界自然基金会(WWF)《生物多样性公约》倡导项目

The review mechanism of the Convention on Biological Diversity: Status, challenges and prospects

Shuxia Yu1, Liangchun Deng1,2,3,*(), Qiong Wu2, Zhen Wang1   

  1. 1 College of Resources & Environment, Huazhong Agriculture University, Wuhan 430070
    2 World Wide Fund for Nature, Beijing 100037
    3 Center for Environmental Progress, Wuhan 430070
  • Received:2020-11-30 Accepted:2021-02-01 Online:2021-02-20 Published:2021-02-25
  • Contact: Liangchun Deng

摘要:

生物多样性丧失是全球共同面临的一项重大挑战, 强化《生物多样性公约》的执行是生物多样性全球治理当前面临的迫切问题, 而推进审查机制建设则是强化执行的一项重要议题, 引起国际社会高度关注。《生物多样性公约》框架下已初步建立起一套涉及多个维度的审查机制, 不断审查《生物多样性公约》及其有关议定书和其他法律文书的执行情况。然而, 审查机制面临着参与审查并强化问责的政治意愿尚显不足、国家信息投入有待加强、审查结论有待助力强化《生物多样性公约》执行、各类审查工具需加强统筹协调等主要问题, 由此也制约了审查工作的完善性和有效性。本文概述了《生物多样性公约》框架下的执行机制, 并重点梳理了审查机制的主要环节和内容, 分析了当前面临的主要障碍, 并就审查机制的进一步建设与强化提出建议, 以期为开展《生物多样性公约》履约与制度建设, 以及有关的研究工作提供参考。在战略层面, 本文认为应当在整体、全面和平衡地推进构建“2020年后全球生物多样性框架”的前提下推进《生物多样性公约》审查机制建设, 应当加强高层政治推动并调动各方行动意愿, 为发展中国家适用一定的和必要的灵活性; 在技术层面, 本文认为应当强化作为《生物多样性公约》审查机制前端的国家信息汇报, 应鼓励缔约方参与具有促进性的审查工作, 为国家自主评估执行情况提供重要补充, 并且审查内容也应当全面和平衡, 可以考虑采取全球盘点机制助力各方弥合执行差距并提升执行力度。

关键词: 生物多样性, 生物多样性公约, 爱知目标, 2020年后全球生物多样性框架, 执行机制, 审查机制

Abstract

Background: The loss of global biological diversity represents a global common concern and a major challenge, while it is urgently needed to strengthen the global biodiversity governance and the implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity. The review mechanism is a crucial agenda item with wide attention of the international community, and a multi-dimensional system has been preliminarily established to support the review of the implementation of the Convention, its protocols and other legal documents.
Challenges: However, the review mechanism has been confronted by the lack of political wills of participation with enhanced accountability, insufficient national inputs, ineffectiveness of review results to enhance implementation, as well as lack of coordination among a proliferation of review tools, all of which constrain the completeness and effectiveness of the review.
Purpose: This paper recaps the implementation mechanism of the Convention and outlines the major processes and contents of the review mechanism, followed by analysis of key obstacles. The paper further discusses and recommends strategic and technical steps to enhance the review mechanism of the Convention, in order to inform the implementation of the Convention, future development of the Convention and related research works.
Recommendations: Our strategic recommendations include strengthening the review mechanism in the light of a comprehensive and balanced advancement of the entire Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework, enabled by high-level political support, as well as by the mobilization of willingness and actions from all stakeholders, meanwhile providing necessary flexibility to developing country parties. On the technical side, it is suggested to further enhance national information reporting to be reviewed and to encourage wide participation of parties in facilitative reviews of implementation, complementing those assessment efforts made by party themselves. Meanwhile, information to be reviewed shall also be comprehensive and balanced, while it is also suggested to consider the global stock-take mechanism to support efforts by parties to close the implementation gaps and to enhance actions and ambitions.

Key words: biodiversity, Convention on Biological Diversity, Aichi Target, Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework, implementation mechanism, review mechanism