生物多样性 ›› 2020, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (12): 1496-1510.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2020191

• 黄河流域生物多样性保护专题 • 上一篇    下一篇

黄河流域淡水鱼类多样性和保护

赵亚辉1,*(), 邢迎春2, 吕彬彬3, 周传江4, 杨文波2, 赵凯5,*()   

  1. 1. 中国科学院动物研究所, 中国科学院动物进化与系统学重点实验室, 北京 100101
    2. 中国水产科学研究院资源与环境研究中心, 北京 100141
    3. 陕西格林维泽环保技术服务有限公司, 西安 710075
    4. 河南师范大学水产学院, 河南新乡 453007
    5. 中国科学院西北高原生物研究所, 西宁 810008
  • 收稿日期:2020-07-07 接受日期:2020-08-15 出版日期:2020-12-20 发布日期:2020-12-31
  • 通讯作者: 赵亚辉,赵凯
  • 作者简介:zhaokai@nwipb.cas.cn
    : E-mail: zhaoyh@ioz.ac.cn;
    第一联系人:

    # 共同第一作者 Co-first authors

  • 基金资助:
    生态环境部生物多样性调查评估项目(2019HJ2096001006);中国生物多样性监测与研究网络-内陆水体鱼类多样性监测专项网、青海省自然科学基金项目(2020-ZJ-912)

Species diversity and conservation of freshwater fishes in the Yellow River basin

Yahui Zhao1,*(), Yingchun Xing2, Binbin Lü3, Chuanjiang Zhou4, Wenbo Yang2, Kai Zhao5,*()   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Zoological Systematics and Evolution, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101
    2. Research Center for Resources and Environment Protection, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Beijing 100141
    3. Shaanxi Green Wiser Environmental Protection Technology Co. Ltd., Xi’an 710075;
    4. College of Fisheries, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang, Henan 453007
    5. Northwest Institute of Plateau Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xining 810008
  • Received:2020-07-07 Accepted:2020-08-15 Online:2020-12-20 Published:2020-12-31
  • Contact: Yahui Zhao,Kai Zhao

摘要:

本文介绍了黄河流域鱼类研究的历史、淡水鱼类的物种组成、整体分布格局、特有性、濒危性, 以及鱼类多样性在黄河上、中、下游等的特点。历史上对于黄河鱼类多样性的研究, 历经了四个阶段, 从最初的零星记录一直到现阶段的深入研究。综合历史记录和野外调查, 已知黄河流域分布的淡水鱼类共计147种, 隶属于12目21科78属, 其中鲤形目种类占据绝对优势。另外, 全流域黄河特有种计有27种, 受危物种24种, 分别占总数的18.37%和16.32%。同中国主要江河相比, 黄河鱼类在高级分类阶元上的多样性较高, 但物种多样性则处在较低水平; 尽管黄河特有鱼类和受危物种比例低于全国平均水平, 但上游特有鱼类和珍稀濒危鱼类的占比很高。目前黄河鱼类多样性大幅降低, 现状调查仅能采获历史记录种类的53.06%。梯级水电开发、水资源过度利用、外来物种、水域污染和过度捕捞都是威胁鱼类多样性的重要因素, 但对各河段和支流的影响不一, 应做出有针对性的保护部署。

关键词: 黄河, 可持续发展, 淡水鱼类, 中国特有种, 濒危物种

Abstract

This paper firstly reviews the research history on fish taxonomy and species diversity of the Yellow River basin. It includes four stages from the beginning of a few records on fish distributed in the river to now with deep studies covering biodiversity, zoogeography, phylogeny, and conservation. Based on the research literatures, museum database and records, and our own field surveys in the past 15 years throughout the entire basin, we discuss the species richness, distribution pattern, endemism, and threatened species of the freshwater fishes in the Yellow River basin. A total of 147 species, belonging to 78 genera, 21 families, and 12 orders, are distributed in the Yellow River. Among them, fishes from the order Cypriniformes are dominant. There are 27 endemic species to the river and 24 threatened species, accounting for 18.37% and 16.32% of the total number of freshwater fish species of the river, respectively. Moreover, species diversity varied among the upper, middle, and lower reaches of the Yellow River. Comparing to other major rivers in China, the species richness is at a lower level although the diversity at higher taxon levels is relatively high. Proportions of endemic and threatened species of the Yellow River are lower than the average level of the entire nation. However, the upper reach has large proportions of both endemic and threatened species, which should be drawn more attention for future conservation. At present, the species diversity of freshwater fish is rapidly decreasing. Our thorough field investigations may collect only 53.06% of the total species. Cascade hydropower development, over-exploitation of water resources, invasive species, water pollution, and overfishing are major threats to the fish species of the Yellow River. The main stream and tributaries may face different threat that need targeted strategies for the conservation of freshwater fishes in the future.

Key words: Yellow River, sustainable development, freshwater fishes, endemic species, threatened species