生物多样性

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跨流域调水背景下汉江流域洋县段的鱼类多样性及资源现状

赵阳1,2,牛诚祎2,李雪健3,刘海波2,孙光4,罗遵兰4,赵亚辉2   

  1. 1.河北大学生命科学学院 2. 中国科学院动物研究所 3. 上海海洋大学水产与生命学院
    4. 中国环境科学研究院
  • 收稿日期:2020-04-20 修回日期:2020-06-22 出版日期:2020-10-20 发布日期:2020-09-12
  • 通讯作者: 赵亚辉

Fish diversity and resource status in the Yangxian Section of the Hanjiang River under the context of inter-basin water transfer

Yang Zhao1,2,Chengyi Niu2,Xuejian Li3,Haibo Liu2,Guang Sun4,Zunlan Luo4,Yahui Zhao2   

  1. 1. College of Life Sciences, Hebei University
    2. Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences
    3. College of Fisheries and Life Science, Shanghai Ocean University
    4. Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences
  • Received:2020-04-20 Revised:2020-06-22 Online:2020-10-20 Published:2020-09-12
  • Contact: Yahui Zhao

摘要: 摘要:汉江上游洋县段是引汉济渭跨流域调水工程重要的水源区,作者于2016?2017年间对汉江洋县段干流与6条主要支流的鱼类多样性组成进行了详细调查,并对鱼类受干扰程度进行分析。结合历史记录显示,调查区域内共分布有土著鱼类76种,隶属于6目14科57属,组成上以鲤形目鲤科和鲇形目鲿科的鱼类为主,分别占土著鱼类总数的57.89%和11.84%;珍稀濒危鱼类共计5种,包括2种国家II级保护水生野生动物。作者以Margalef丰富度指数、Shannon-Wiener多样性指数、Pielou’s均匀性指数和Jaccard相似性指数对洋县境内七条河流进行了评估,显示汉江干流的丰富度指数和多样性指数明显高于其它6条支流。通过对鱼类丰度生物量曲线(ABC曲线)的分析,显示目前调查区域内鱼类小型化现象明显、鱼类受到较严重干扰。水利水电工程建设对于调查区域鱼类多样性影响最大,干流大型水库(大坝)通过改变原有流水生境、阻断河流纵向连通性、淹没重要鱼类产卵场等对鱼类多样性和群落组成产生不利影响;支流引水式的中小型电站造成下游河段减、脱水而使河道发生断流、以及生境破碎化,从而威胁土著鱼类的生存。在跨流域调水过程中,应重视不同水系鱼类引入的潜在生态风险。对引汉济渭工程的水源区鱼类多样性现状的调查,有助于未来跨流域调水过程中鱼类变化的动态监测和外来物种的预警。

关键词: 关键词:淡水鱼类, 大坝, 引汉济渭, 保护, 长江

Abstract: Abstract: The Yangxian section of the Hanjiang River is an important water source of Hanjiang to Weihe River inter-basin water transfer project. Aiming at this area, we surveyed the fish diversity of main stream and six tributaries from 2016 to 2017. With historical data, our survey showed that the investigation area has 76 native species belonging to 57 genera, 14 families, and 6 orders. Fishes from Cyprinidae and Bagridae are dominant, accounting for 57.89% and 11.84% of the total number of native species, respectively. There are five endangered species. And two of them are classified as second-class state-protected wild animals in China. Fish composition and diversity showed distinctive differences between the main streams and branches by indexes of Margalef, Shannon-Wiener, Pielou’s, and Jaccard. The analysis of the Abundance Biomass Comparison indicated that the fish community has been seriously disturbed. Water conservancy and hydropower projects are the main influences on decreasing of fish diversity and populations. The construction of large dams on the main stream will cause the habitat change from flowing water to still water, interception of the connection between upper and lower streams, and disappearance of spawning grounds. Small-sized hydropower stations on the branches will reduce the water of down streams, then influence the fish populations. Under the background of inter-basin water transfer, potential invasive-species from different river systems should draw attention to the conservation of native fish in the future. Therefore, the present work will provide information for dynamic monitoring on fish diversity and early warning of invasive species during the construction of Hanjiang to Weihe River Water Diversion Project.

Key words: Key words: Freshwater fishes, Dams, Hanjiang to Weihe River Water Diversion Project, Conservation, Yangtze River