生物多样性 ›› 2021, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (3): 361-372.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2020158

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

跨流域调水背景下汉江流域洋县段的鱼类多样性及资源现状

赵阳1,2,3(), 牛诚祎2, 李雪健2,4, 刘海波2, 孙光3, 罗遵兰3,*(), 赵亚辉2,*()   

  1. 1.河北大学生命科学学院, 河北保定 071002
    2.中国科学院动物研究所动物进化与系统学重点实验室, 北京 100101
    3.中国环境科学研究院国家环境保护区域生态过程与功能评估重点实验室, 北京 100012
    4.上海海洋大学水产与生命学院, 上海 201306
  • 收稿日期:2020-04-20 接受日期:2020-07-04 出版日期:2021-03-20 发布日期:2020-09-12
  • 通讯作者: 罗遵兰,赵亚辉
  • 作者简介:E-mail: zhaoyh@ioz.ac.cn;
  • 基金资助:
    生态环境部生物多样性调查评估项目(2019HJ2096001006);中国生物多样性监测与研究网络-内陆水体鱼类多样性监测专项网(Sino BON - Inland Water Fish Diversity Observation Network);国家科技基础资源调查专项(2019FY101800)

Fish diversity and resource status in the Yangxian Section of the Hanjiang River under the context of inter-basin water transfer

Yang Zhao1,2,3(), Chengyi Niu2, Xuejian Li2,4, Haibo Liu2, Guang Sun3, Zunlan Luo3,*(), Yahui Zhao2,*()   

  1. 1. College of Life Sciences, Hebei University, Baoding, Hebei 071002
    2. Key Laboratory of Zoological Systematics and Evolution, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101
    3. State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Regional Eco-Process and Function Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012
    4. College of Fisheries and Life Science, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai 201306
  • Received:2020-04-20 Accepted:2020-07-04 Online:2021-03-20 Published:2020-09-12
  • Contact: Zunlan Luo,Yahui Zhao
  • About author:luozunlan@163.com

摘要:

汉江是南水北调中线工程和引汉济渭等跨流域调水工程重要的水源区, 了解其鱼类多样性的现状及变化对于水生态保护尤为重要。作者于2016-2017年间对汉江洋县段干流与6条主要支流的鱼类多样性组成进行了两次调查, 以Margalef丰富度指数、Shannon-Wiener多样性指数、Pielou均匀度指数和Jaccard相似性系数对洋县境内7条河流进行评估, 同时通过相对重要性指数(index of relative importance,IRI)判定优势种, 利用鱼类丰度生物量(abundance biomass comparison, ABC)曲线分析鱼类受干扰情况。结合历史记录, 调查区域内共分布有土著鱼类76种, 隶属于6目14科57属, 以鲤形目鲤科和鲇形目鲿科鱼类为主, 分别占土著鱼类总数的57.89%和11.84%; 珍稀濒危鱼类共计5种, 包括3种国家级保护水生野生动物。鱼类多样性分析结果显示汉江干流的丰富度指数和多样性指数显著高于6条支流。7条河流的IRI指数显示优势种为宽鳍鱲(Zacco platypus)。ABC曲线显示目前调查区域内鱼类小型化现象明显、鱼类受到较严重干扰。水利水电工程建设对于调查区域鱼类多样性影响最大, 干流大型水库(大坝)通过改变原有流水生境、阻断河流纵向连通性、淹没重要鱼类产卵场等对鱼类多样性和群落组成产生不利影响; 支流引水式的中小型电站造成下游河段减、脱水而使河道发生断流以及生境破碎化, 从而威胁土著鱼类的生存。在跨流域调水过程中, 应重视不同水系鱼类引入的潜在生态风险。对引汉济渭工程的水源区鱼类多样性现状的调查, 有助于未来跨流域调水过程中鱼类变化的动态监测和外来物种的预警。

关键词: 淡水鱼类, 大坝, 引汉济渭, 保护, 长江

Abstract

Aims: The Hanjiang River is an important water source of the Middle Route Scheme of South-North Water Diversion Project and Hanjiang to Weihe River Inter-basin Water Transfer Project. It is necessary to understand the current status and changes of fish species diversity for future conservation of aquatic ecosystem.
Methods: In order to investigate the fish diversity and resource status in Yangxian section of the Hanjiang River, we surveyed the fish diversity of main stream and six tributaries twice from 2016 to 2017. The indices of Margalef, Shannon-Wiener, Pielou’s, and Jaccard were used to evaluate the main streams and branches in Yangxian County. The index of relative importance (IRI) was calculated to determine the dominant species, and the abundance biomass comparison (ABC) was used to analyze the interference to fish.
Results: With historical data, our survey showed that this section of the river has 76 native species belonging to 57 genera, 14 families, and 6 orders. Fishes from Cyprinidae and Bagridae are dominant, accounting for 57.89% and 11.84% of the total number of native species, respectively. There are five endangered species, and three of them are classified as National Protected Wild Animals in China. The results of fish diversity analysis showed that the richness index and diversity index of the main stream of the Hanjiang River were significantly higher than those of the six tributaries. IRI index showed that the dominant species was Zacco platypus. An analysis of the ABC curve indicated that the fish community has been seriously disturbed.
Conclusion: Water conservancy and hydropower projects are the main influences that were correlated with a decrease of fish diversity and populations. The construction of large dams on the main stream will change the habitat from flowing water to still water, and disrupt the connection between upper and lower streams, and cause the disappearance of spawning grounds. Small-sized hydropower stations on the river branches will reduce the water of downstream affecting the fish populations. The inter-basin water transfer project has the potential possibility to introduce fish species from different river systems. Our study provides basic data for the dynamic monitoring of fish diversity and an early warning of invasive species during the construction of the Hanjiang to Weihe River Water Diversion Project.

Key words: freshwater fishes, dams, Hanjiang to Weihe River Water Diversion Project, conservation, Yangtze River