生物多样性 ›› 2020, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (12): 1483-1495.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2020328

• 黄河流域生物多样性保护专题 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于卫星追踪探讨黄河流域自然保护区对3种水鸟栖息地的保护现状

王昱熙1, 谢彦波1, NyambayarBatbayar5, 朱宝光4, 董树斌4, AnnaBarma7, AntonSasin6, 曹垒2,3,*()   

  1. 1. 中国科学技术大学, 合肥 230026
    2. 中国科学院生态环境研究中心, 北京 100085
    3. 中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
    4. 洪河国家级自然保护区, 建三江, 黑龙江 156332
    5. 蒙古野生动物科学与保护中心, 蒙古乌兰巴托市苏赫巴托尔区 14210
    6. 俄罗斯阿穆尔社会生态联盟公共环境组织, 俄罗斯布拉戈维申斯克 675000
    7. 世界自然基金会俄罗斯阿穆尔分会, 俄罗斯符拉迪沃斯托克 690003
  • 收稿日期:2020-08-16 接受日期:2021-01-18 出版日期:2020-12-20 发布日期:2021-01-27
  • 通讯作者: 曹垒
  • 作者简介:. E-mail: caolei@ustc.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    中国生物多样性监测与研究网络(Sino BON)

Discussion of existing protection for three waterbirds’ habitats in the Yellow River basin nature reserves, based on satellite tracking

Yuxi Wang1, Yanbo Xie1, Nyambayar Batbayar5, Baoguang Zhu4, Shubin Dong4, Anna Barma7, Anton Sasin6, Lei Cao2,3,*()   

  1. 1. University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, China
    2. Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China
    3. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
    4. Honghe National Nature Reserve, Jiansanjiang, Heilongjiang 156332, China
    5. Wildlife Science and Conservation Center of Mongolia, Sukhbaatar District 14210, Mongolia
    6. Public Environmental Organization “AmurSEU”, Blagoveshchensk 675000, Russia;
    7. WWF-Russia, Amur Branch, Vladivostok 690003, Russia
  • Received:2020-08-16 Accepted:2021-01-18 Online:2020-12-20 Published:2021-01-27
  • Contact: Lei Cao

摘要:

自然保护区是生物多样性保护的重要形式, 对于迁徙水鸟而言, 它的规划尤为重要。本研究于2016-2018年间在中国、蒙古国和俄罗斯捕捉6只斑头雁(Anser indicus)、5只白琵鹭(Platalea leucorodia)和10只东方白鹳(Ciconia boyciana)进行卫星追踪, 探讨了黄河流域自然保护区对它们栖息地的保护现状。基于4年累积获取的844,592条高频数据, 分析了这21只水鸟在黄河流域活动的时间和利用的土地类型, 并使用核密度法拟合了3种鸟类的家域。结果表明: 3种鸟类均利用黄河流域湿地作为迁徙途中的停歇地, 其中一部分白琵鹭幼鸟利用黄河流域湿地作为度夏地, 一部分东方白鹳利用黄河三角洲湿地作为越冬地; 3种水鸟在黄河流域内的土地利用情况存在差异, 斑头雁对草地(49.0%)、裸地(26.2%)与水体(22.5%)的利用率较高, 白琵鹭对农田(42.1%)、草地(19.8%)和湿地(19.6%)的利用率较高, 东方白鹳对湿地(49.8%)、农田(34.5%)和水体(4.6%)的利用率较高; 斑头雁核心的50%家域被现有保护区完全覆盖, 而白琵鹭和东方白鹳核心的50%家域被现有保护区的覆盖度分别为1.6%和0, 表明后2种水鸟的栖息地极大可能存在保护空缺; 同时对覆盖范围内土地类型自身占比进行分析, 发现3种鸟类对于裸地、草地和农田的利用偏向于被动选择, 而对于湿地和水体的利用表现为主动选择。基于卫星追踪获得的高频数据可以准确反映3种水鸟在黄河流域的停歇情况、土地利用情况及潜在栖息位点。在黄河流域自然保护区的进一步规划中, 应关注白琵鹭和东方白鹳适宜生境的保护状况, 并建立覆盖全面的保护区。

关键词: 斑头雁, 白琵鹭, 东方白鹳, 卫星遥测追踪, 黄河自然保护区, 保护现状

Abstract

Nature reserves represent an important form of biodiversity conservation, and their presence is particularly crucial for migratory waterbirds. From 2016‒2018, six Bar-headed Geese (Anser indicus), five Eurasian Spoonbills (Platalea leucorodia) and ten Oriental Storks (Ciconia Boyciana) were captured in China, Mongolia and Russia. During the tracking period, 844,592 pieces of high-frequency GPS tracking data were obtained, we analyzed the duration that these birds spent in the Yellow River basin and, the land cover types during their stay. Then we simulated the home range of the three species using kernel density estimation. The results showed that the Yellow River basin wetlands are used as a stopover site during the migration of these three waterbirds. Some juveniles of the Eurasian Spoonbills use the land as a summering area, and some of the Oriental Storks use it as a wintering area. There are differences in land cover of three waterfowl in the Yellow River basin. The Bar-headed Goose used the grassland (49.0%), bare land (26.2%) and water (22.5%). The Eurasian Spoonbill used the cropland (42.1%), grassland (19.8%) and wetland (19.6%). The Oriental Stork used the wetland (49.8%), cropland (34.5%) and water (4.6%). Our study found that 50% of the home range of the Bar-headed Goose overlaps with the existing nature reserves, while the homes range of the Eurasian Spoonbill and the Oriental Stork only overlap 1.6% and 0 with existing nature reserves, respectively. The habitats of these latter two species are in need of greater protection. At the same time, by analyzing the proportion of land types in the coverage area, we found that the birds’ utilization of bare land, grassland and cropland is more passive, while the utilization of wetland and water is active. The results detail the movement and living characteristics of three waterfowl in the Yellow River. Given the lack of overlap between their habitats and existing nature reserves, it will be important to establish comprehensive protected areas for Eurasian Spoonbills and Oriental Storks as part of further development of the Yellow River nature reserves.

Key words: Bar-headed Goose, Eurasian Spoonbill, Oriental Stork, satellite telemetry, Yellow River nature reserve, protection status