生物多样性 ›› 2021, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (3): 373-384.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2020181

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

复合污染尾矿废水中真菌群落多样性及其驱动机制

刘晋仙1,*(), 柴宝峰1, 罗正明1,2   

  1. 1.山西大学黄土高原研究所, 黄土高原生态恢复山西省重点实验室, 太原 030006
    2.忻州师范学院地理系, 山西忻州 034000
  • 收稿日期:2020-04-30 接受日期:2020-07-10 出版日期:2021-03-20 发布日期:2021-01-11
  • 通讯作者: 刘晋仙
  • 作者简介:E-mail: liujinxian@sxu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(31801962);山西省基础研究项目(201901D211129);山西省基础研究项目(201901D211457)

Driving forces and the diversity of fungal communities in complex contaminated tailings drainage

Jinxian Liu1,*(), Baofeng Chai1, Zhengming Luo1,2   

  1. 1. Institute of Loess Plateau, Shanxi University, Shanxi Key Laboratory of Ecological Restoration on Loess Plateau, Taiyuan 030006
    2. Department of Geography, Xinzhou Teachers University, Xinzhou, Shanxi 034000
  • Received:2020-04-30 Accepted:2020-07-10 Online:2021-03-20 Published:2021-01-11
  • Contact: Jinxian Liu

摘要:

金属尾矿废水中含有重金属以及多种有机和无机污染物, 然而在该极端生境中仍然有大量微生物存在。为了揭示碱性尾矿废水中真菌群落的组成模式和多样性格局及其维持机制, 本文利用ITS1区rDNA基因扩增子测序和qPCR技术对山西中条山十八河尾矿库废水中5个不同采样点真菌群落的组成、丰度和分布格局进行了研究。通过主坐标分析(PCoA)比较不同采样点间群落结构的差异性; 通过冗余分析(RDA)探讨了水体理化因子对真菌群落结构的影响; 通过零模型分析了影响群落结构的主要因素; 通过网络图分析了真菌类群之间的种间相互作用。结果表明, 布勒掷孢酵母属(Bullera)、Schizangiella、支顶孢属(Acremonium)和亚罗酵母属(Yarrowia)是主要的优势属, 真菌群落在不同采样地点从门到属水平的相对丰度均有明显变化。真菌群落丰度沿水流方向逐渐增加且与有机碳(TOC)浓度呈显著正相关。真菌群落的α-多样性与pH、重金属(As和Cu)、无机碳(IC)和铵态氮(NH4+)浓度显著相关。真菌群落的空间结构在不同采样点具有明显差异, 这种差异性与理化因子没有显著关系; 不同采样点真菌群落的零偏差值均大于零, 且不同物种之间存在复杂的种间相互作用。以上结果说明, 在尾矿废水中环境因子只对真菌群落的α-多样性有显著影响, 而群落的β-多样性主要受种间相互作用关系的影响, 表明在碱性铜尾矿废水中存在比较复杂的真菌群落动态模式。

关键词: 尾矿废水, 真菌群落, 多样性, 维持机制

Abstract

Aims:Metal tailings drainage contains heavy metals and a variety of organic and inorganic pollutants, but a large number of microorganisms still exist in this extreme habitat. In order to reveal the composition pattern and diversity maintaining mechanism of fungal communities in alkaline copper mine drainage, the composition, abundance and distribution pattern of fungal communities in five water sites in Shibahe tailings reservoir were studied by using the rDNA gene amplification sequencing and qPCR in ITS1 area.
Methods:The fungal community compositions among different sample points were compared by principal coordinate analysis (PCoA). The relationship between physicochemical factors and the distribution of fungal communities were analyzed by redundancy analysis (RDA). The main factors influencing community structure were analyzed by null model. The interactions between fungal genera were analyzed by network.
Results:the results showed that Bullera, Schizangiella, Acremonium and Yarrowia were the dominant genera. The relative abundance of fungal communities varied significantly from phylum to genus level in different sampling sites. The abundance of fungal communities increased gradually along the direction of water flow and was positively correlated with the concentration of total organic carbon (TOC). PH, heavy metals (As and Cu), inorganic carbon (IC) and ammonium nitrogen (NH4+) were significantly correlated with the α-diversity of the communities. The distribution of fungal communities in different sample sites was obviously different. The physicochemical factors had no significant effect on the distribution of fungal community. The null deviation values of fungal communities in different sampling sites were greater than zero, and there were complex interactions among different genera.
Conclusions:These results indicated that the environmental factors only have a significant correlation with the α-diversity of the fungal communities, while the β-diversity was mainly affected by the interaction between species in tailings drainage. Our findings highlight that there is a relatively complex fungal community dynamic pattern in alkaline copper tailings drainage.

Key words: tailings drainage, fungal communities, diversity, maintenance mechanism