生物多样性 ›› 2020, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (9): 1141-1146.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2020089

• 生物编目 • 上一篇    下一篇

利用红外相机监测甘肃安西极旱荒漠国家级自然保护区鸟兽物种多样性

包新康1#,*(), 王亮1,2#, 卢梦洁1, 裴鹏祖2, 李建亮1, 马东辉1, 李佳琦3,*()   

  1. 1 兰州大学生命科学学院, 兰州 730000
    2 甘肃安西极旱荒漠国家级自然保护区管理局, 甘肃瓜州 736100
    3 生态环境部南京环境科学研究所, 南京 210042
  • 收稿日期:2020-03-08 接受日期:2020-06-18 出版日期:2020-09-20 发布日期:2020-09-12
  • 通讯作者: 包新康,李佳琦
  • 作者简介:lijiaqihao@163.com
    *E-mail: baoxk@lzu.edu.cn;
    第一联系人: Co-first author
  • 基金资助:
    科技部重点研发计划(2017YFC0505205);生态环境部生物多样性调查、观测与评估项目(M2019-59);生态环境部生物多样性保护专项“2017年瓜州县生物多样性观测项目(哺乳类)”和“安西极旱荒漠国家级自然保护区生物多样性观测项目”

Investigation of bird and mammal diversity in the Gansu Anxi Extreme-arid Desert National Nature Reserve using infrared camera traps

Xinkang Bao1#,*(), Liang Wang1,2#, Mengjie Lu1, Pengzu Pei2, Jianliang Li1, Donghui Ma1, Jiaqi Li3,*()   

  1. 1 School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000
    2 Administrative Bureau of Gansu Anxi Extreme-arid Desert National Nature Reserve, Guazhou, Gansu 736100
    3 Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences, Ministry of Ecology and Environment, Nanjing 210042
  • Received:2020-03-08 Accepted:2020-06-18 Online:2020-09-20 Published:2020-09-12
  • Contact: Xinkang Bao,Jiaqi Li

摘要:

为了系统掌握甘肃安西极旱荒漠国家级自然保护区野生动物的种类、数量、分布以及种群动态变化趋势, 我们于2017年8月至2019年9月, 在保护区选取3个样地布设60台红外相机, 对保护区兽类和鸟类多样性进行调查。红外相机累计观测29,147个工作日, 采集独立有效照片11,134张。共观测到兽类6目10科18种, 鸟类7目16科31种。国家I级重点保护野生动物有5种, 国家Ⅱ级重点保护野生动物有11种。兽类中相对多度较高的物种有蒙古兔(Lepus tolai, RAI = 12.749)、岩羊(Pseudois nayaur, RAI = 4.690)、北山羊(Capra sibirica, RAI = 4.333)、蒙古野驴(Equus hemionus, RAI = 3.163)、赤狐(Vulpes vulpes, RAI = 2.601), 分布最普遍的是赤狐和蒙古兔; 鸟类中相对多度较高的物种有石鸡(Alectoris chukar, RAI = 1.678)、岩鸽(Columba rupestris, RAI = 1.142)、漠䳭(Oenanthe deserti, RAI = 0.865)、赭红尾鸲(Phoenicurus ochruros, RAI = 0.374)和沙䳭(Oenanthe isabellina, RAI = 0.196), 其中漠䳭和石鸡的分布最广。豺(Cuon alpinus)、石貂(Martes foina)、黄鼬(Mustela sibirica)和白唇鹿(Cervus albirostris)为保护区新记录物种, 雪豹(Panthera uncia)也是保护区建立以来首次观测到。保护区人为干扰减少是造成物种新分布、数量增多的主要原因。

关键词: 红外相机, 甘肃安西极旱荒漠国家级自然保护区, 兽类, 鸟类, 物种多样性, 相对多度

Abstract:

In this study, we systematically determined the quantity, distribution, and population dynamics of wild bird and mammal species in the Gansu Anxi Extreme-arid Desert National Nature Reserve. We set 60 infrared cameras in three sample plots to monitor wild mammals and birds in the nature reserve. A total of 11,134 independent images were collected with a survey effort of 29,147 camera-days from August 2017 to September 2019. We identified 18 mammal species and 31 bird species, which include 5 and 11 species listed as Class I and Class II National Protected Wildlife in China, respectively. The analysis on the relative abundance of species showed that the five most abundant mammal species with highest RAIs (relative abundance index) in the reserve were Lepus tolai (RAI = 12.749), Pseudois nayaur (RAI = 4.690), Capra sibirica (RAI = 4.333), Equus hemionus (RAI = 3.163), Vulpes vulpes (RAI = 2.601). The bird species with highest RAIs were Alectoris chukar (RAI = 1.678), Columba rupestris (RAI = 1.142), Oenanthe deserti (RAI = 0.865), Phoenicurus ochruros (RAI = 0.374) and Oenanthe isabellina (RAI = 0.196). The results of the grid occupancy analysis for each species indicated that the most widely distributed mammals were Vulpes vulpes and Lepus tolai and the most widely distributed birds were Oenanthe deserti and Alectoris chukar. Compared to survey data collected over the last two decades, four newly recorded species (Cuon alpinus, Martes foina, Mustela sibirica, and Cervus albirostris) were found, and the observation of Panthera uncia was also the first in the reserve. Decreased human interference in the nature reserve is likely the main reason for the new species distributions and increase in the number of species within the reserve.

Key words: camera-trapping, Gansu Anxi Extreme-arid Desert National Nature Reserve, mammals, birds, species diversity, relative abundance