生物多样性

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中国农业生物多样性保护进展概述

郑晓明,杨庆文   

  1. 中国农业科学院作物科学研究所
  • 收稿日期:2020-03-05 修回日期:2020-07-13 发布日期:2020-07-28
  • 通讯作者: 杨庆文

Progress of agricultural biodiversity conservation in China

Xiaoming Zheng1,Qingwen Yang2   

  1. 1. Institute of Crop Sciences,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
    2.
  • Received:2020-03-05 Revised:2020-07-13 Published:2020-07-28
  • Contact: Qingwen Yang

摘要: 农业生物多样性是农业安全生产的基础条件和农业可持续发展的战略资源。中国自20世纪50年代就开始重视农业生物多样性的保护, 建立了较为完善的法律法规等保障体系, 并在农业生态系统、物种和遗传多样性3个层面采取了一系列保护措施, 基本形成了异位保存和原生境保护相互补充的保护体系, 取得了显著的保护成效。本文概述了中国近70年来农业生物多样性保护在法律法规和保护机制、保护规划、保护体系和能力建设方面取得的进展, 指出我国农业生物多样性保护面临着未与国际国内发展战略相适应、保护体系不完整、保护能力不足等问题, 并提出完善我国农业生物多样性保护体系、促进农业生态系统服务功能系统化、加快农业生物多样性主流化进程以及加强能力建设等相关建议。

关键词: 农业生物多样性,保护,展望

Abstract: Agricultural biodiversity has a significant influence on agricultural production and plays an important role in sustainable development. Consequently, the Chinese government has emphasized agricultural biodiversity conservation since the early 1950s by formulating laws and regulations related to agricultural biodiversity, establishing management mechanisms, mapping out related programs, and implementing research and capacity building projects. It has also taken conservation actions at the levels of ecosystems, species, and genes. More recently, China established a primary conservation system with both in-situ and ex-situ approaches. Here, we summarize China’s main progress toward establishing a supporting system of legislation, policies, research, and capacity building in agricultural biodiversity conservation over the past 70 years. We highlight important gaps in the areas of agricultural biodiversity conservation compared to international and national development strategies, describe the requirements associated with enhancing the conservation system in China, and underscore the need to build capacity. We propose that agricultural biodiversity conservation in China should align with international regulations, such as the Nagoya Protocol and ITPGRFA, promote ecosystem services, create a streamlined process across government sectors, and increase public capacity.

Key words: Agrobiodiversity, Conservation, Prospects