生物多样性 ›› 2021, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (1): 32-42.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2020067

• 研究报告:动物多样性 • 上一篇    下一篇

上海苏州河治理中鱼类多样性及群落结构变化

余宏昌1, 毕宝帅1, 唐文乔1,2,*(), 张亚1,2, 郭弘艺1,2   

  1. 1.上海海洋大学海洋动物系统分类与进化上海高校重点实验室, 上海 201306
    2.上海海洋大学水产种质资源发掘与利用省部共建教育部重点实验室, 上海 201306
  • 收稿日期:2020-03-02 接受日期:2020-05-23 出版日期:2021-01-20 发布日期:2020-09-12
  • 通讯作者: 唐文乔
  • 作者简介:*E-mail: wqtang@shou.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    上海市生态环境局2019年苏州河鱼类群落专项调查项目;国家重点研发计划(2018YFD0900802)

Changes in fish diversity and assemblage during comprehensive restoration of the Suzhou River in Shanghai

Hongchang Yu1, Baoshuai Bi1, Wenqiao Tang1,2,*(), Ya Zhang1,2, Hongyi Guo1,2   

  1. 1 Shanghai Universities Key Laboratory of Marine Animal Taxonomy and Evolution, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai 201306
    2 Key Laboratory of Exploration and Utilization of Aquatic Genetic Resources, Ministry of Education, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai 201306
  • Received:2020-03-02 Accepted:2020-05-23 Online:2021-01-20 Published:2020-09-12
  • Contact: Wenqiao Tang

摘要:

为了评估近20年来上海苏州河环境综合整治过程中鱼类多样性的变化状况, 本文于2019年6月(夏季)和9月(秋季)对苏州河13个断面的鱼类样本进行了采集, 对鱼类多样性和群落结构作了分析。结果显示, 2次采集共获得鱼类样本10,102号, 隶属于8目15科37属45种。夏季和秋季, 上游8个断面的鱼类均为36种, 下游5个断面则为12种和15种。从上游到下游, Shannon-Wiener多样性指数(H')、Margalef种类丰富度指数(D)和Simpson优势度指数(C)总体呈逐渐降低的趋势。相对重要性指数(IRI)显示, 夏秋两季上游断面共同的优势种为似鳊(Pseudobrama simoni), 下游为鲫(Carassius auratus)和泥鳅(Misgurnus anguillicaudatus)。丰度生物量曲线表明, 全河段鱼类群落结构总体上并不稳定, 特别是夏季的下游河段。Cluster聚类和非参数多维标度排序分析可明显将鱼类群落分为上游群组(I)与下游群组(II), 似鳊、泥鳅、鲫、光泽黄颡鱼(Pelteobagrus nitidus)和兴凯鱊(Acheilognathus chankaensis)等是造成群组间差异性的主要分歧种。与2001年的43种、2006年的28种相比, 本次调查的物种数出现了明显回升, 特别是下游河段。这种上游鱼类向下游迁移的趋势, 预示着下游中心城区与上游郊区河段的水质差别正在缩小, 水生态系统恢复迹象明显。本文认为, 上下游之间鱼类群落结构差异的缩小以及翘嘴鲌(Culter alburnus)、红鳍原鲌(Cultrichthys erythropterus)、棒花鱼(Abbottina rivularis)、子陵吻虾虎鱼(Rhinogobius giurinus)等在下游河段的出现, 可作为苏州河综合整治效果的重要生态标志。

关键词: 苏州河, 鱼类物种多样性, 群落结构, 指示鱼类

Abstract

Aim: The Suzhou River, once a typical urban polluted river, flows through the central area of Shanghai. At the end of 1990s, the local government began to carry out the comprehensive treatment of the river environment. The water quality and ecosystem of the river have gradually improved. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the changes in fish diversity and assemblage during the comprehensive restoration of the Suzhou River in Shanghai in the past two decades.
Methods: The paper sampled 13 sections along the Suzhou River in June (summer) and September (autumn) in 2019. Some statistical methods, such as diversity index, relative importance index (IRI), abundance-biomass comparison curve (ABC curve) and cluster analysis, are used to analyze the characteristic parameters of fish diversity and assemblage.
Results: A total of 10,102 fish samples were collected, comprising 45 species belonging to 8 orders, 15 families, and 37 genera. In summer and autumn, there were 36 species of fish in the upper reaches, 12 and 15 species, respectively, in the lower reaches. From upstream to downstream, the Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H'), the Margalef richness index (D), and the Simpson dominance index (C) showed gradual decreases. Relative importance index (IRI) showed that the common dominant species of the upper reaches in summer and autumn was Pseudobrama simoni, and the lower reaches were Carassius auratus and Misgurnus anguillicaudatus, respectively. The abundance-biomass comparison curve (ABC curve) revealed that the fish assemblage of the whole river was unstable, especially downstream in summer. Cluster analysis and non-metric multidimensional ordination, based on species and quantity, indicated that fish assemblage structure could be divided into two groups, e.g. upstream group I and downstream group II. Pseudobrama simoni, Misgurnus anguillicaudatus, Carassius auratus, Pelteobagrus nitidus and Acheilognathus chankaensis were the main discriminating species causing the differences between the two groups.
Conclusions: Compared with the 43 species in 2001 and 28 species in 2006, the species of fishes showed an increase, especially downstream. This trend of fish migration from upstream to downstream may indicate that water quality differences between the upper reaches and lower reaches is narrowing. The reduction of differences in the fish assemblage between upstream and downstream and the appearances of Culter alburnus, Cultrichthys erythropterus, Abbottina rivularis, and Rhinogobius giurinus in the lower reaches are ecological signs of the comprehensive restoration effects in the Suzhou River.

Key words: Suzhou River, species diversity of fish, assemblage, indicative fish