生物多样性 ›› 2021, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (1): 0-0.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2020067

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上海苏州河治理过程中鱼类多样性及群落结构变化

余宏昌,毕宝帅,张亚,郭弘艺,唐文乔   

  1. 海洋动物系统分类与进化上海高校重点实验室
  • 收稿日期:2020-03-02 修回日期:2020-05-21 出版日期:2021-01-20 发布日期:2020-09-12
  • 通讯作者: 唐文乔

Changes of fish diversity and assemblage structure during comprehensive restoration of Suzhou River in Shanghai

Hongchang Yu,Baoshuai Bi,Ya Zhang,Hongyi Guo,Wenqiao Tang   

  1. Shanghai Universities Key Laboratory of Marine Animal Taxonomy and Evolution
  • Received:2020-03-02 Revised:2020-05-21 Online:2021-01-20 Published:2020-09-12
  • Contact: Wenqiao Tang

摘要: 为了评估近20年来苏州河环境综合整治过程中鱼类多样性的变化状况,于2019年6月(夏季)和9月(秋季)对苏州河13个断面的鱼类样本作了采集,对鱼类多样性和群落结构作了分析。结果显示,2次采集共获得鱼类样本10102号、45种,隶属于8目15科37属。夏季和秋季,上游8个断面的鱼类均为36种,下游5个断面则为12种和15种。从上游到下游,Shannon-Wiener多样性指数(H')、Margalef种类丰富度指数(D)和Simpson优势度指数(C)总体呈逐渐降低的趋势。相对重要性指数(IRI)显示,夏秋两季上游断面共同的优势种为似鳊,下游则为鲫和泥鳅。ABC曲线表明,全江段鱼类群落结构总体上并不稳定,特别是夏季的下游江段。Cluster聚类和NMDS排序分析可明显将鱼类群落分为上游群组Ⅰ与下游群组Ⅱ,似鳊、泥鳅、鲫、光泽黄颡鱼和兴凯鱊等是造成群组间差异性的主要分歧种。与2001年的43种、2006年的28种相比,本次调查的物种数出现了明显回升,特别是下游江段。这种上游鱼类向下游迁移的趋势,预示着下游中心城区与上游郊区江段的水质差别正在缩小,水生态系统恢复迹象明显。本文认为,上下游之间鱼类群落结构差异的缩小、以及翘嘴鲌、红鳍原鲌、棒花鱼、子陵吻虾虎鱼等在下游江段的出现,可作为苏州河综合整治效果的重要生态标志。

关键词: 苏州河, 鱼类物种多样性, 群落结构, 指示鱼类

Abstract: In order to evaluate the changes of fish diversity and assemblage structure during the comprehensive restoration of Suzhou River in the past two decades, an investigation on fish resources including 13 sections along the Suzhou River in June (summer) and September (autumn) was carried out. The results showed that a total of 10102 fish samples were collected, comprising 45 species belonging to 8 orders, 15 families and 37 genera. In summer and autumn, there were 36 species of fish in upper reaches, 12 and 15 species in lower reaches. From upstream to downstream, the Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H'), the Margalef species richness index (D) and the Simpson dominance index (C) showed a gradual decrease. Relative Importance Index (IRI) showed that the common dominant species of the upper reaches in summer and autumn was Pseudobrama simoni, and while the lower reaches were Carassius auratus and Misgurnus anguillicaudatus. The abundance-biomass comparison curve (ABC curve ) revealed that the fish assemblage structure of the whole river was unstable, especially the downstream in summer. Cluster Analysis and Non-Metric Multidimensional Ordination, based on species and quantity, indicated that fish assemblage structure can be divided into two groups, I.e. upstream group 1 and downstream group 2. P. simoni, M. anguillicaudatus, C. auratus, Pelteobagrus nitidus and Acheilognathus chankaensis were the main discriminating species causing the differences between two groups. Compared with the 43 species in 2001, and 28 species in 2006, the species of fishes had shown a obvious increase, especially the downstream. This trend of fish migration from upstream to downstream indicated that the water quality difference between the upper reaches and lower reaches was narrowing. The water ecological restoration of the lower reaches is obvious. The paper suggested that the reduction of differences in fish assemblage structure between upstream and downstream, and the appearances of Culter alburnus, Cultrichthys erythropterus, Abbottina rivularis, and Rhinogobius giurinus in lower reaches, those can be used as an ecological sign for the comprehensive restoration effects of Suzhou River.

Key words: Suzhou River, species diversity of fish, assemblage structure, indicative fish