生物多样性 ›› 2019, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (10): 1143-1146.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2019183

• 生物编目 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国马兜铃属和关木通属(马兜铃科)概览

朱鑫鑫1,王君1,廖帅3,马金双2,*()   

  1. 1 信阳师范学院生命科学学院, 河南信阳 464000
    2 上海辰山植物园, 中国科学院上海辰山植物科学研究中心, 上海 201602
    3 华东师范大学生命科学学院, 上海 200241
  • 收稿日期:2019-05-29 接受日期:2019-08-20 出版日期:2019-10-20 发布日期:2019-10-20
  • 通讯作者: 马金双
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(31600161);国家自然科学基金(31370225)

Synopsis of Aristolochia L. and Isotrema Raf. (Aristolochiaceae) in China

Zhu Xinxin1,Wang Jun1,Liao Shuai3,Ma Jinshuang2,*()   

  1. 1 College of Life Sciences, Xinyang Normal University, Xinyang, Henan 464000
    2 Shanghai Chenshan Botanical Garden; Shanghai Chenshan Plant Science Research Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201602
    3 School of Life Sciences, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241
  • Received:2019-05-29 Accepted:2019-08-20 Online:2019-10-20 Published:2019-10-20
  • Contact: Ma Jinshuang

摘要:

马兜铃属(广义) (Aristolochia sensu lato)具有花单被、花萼管状、合蕊柱、子房下位、中轴胎座、胚珠多数、蒴果等主要特征, 广布于全世界的热带、亚热带和温带地区, 约有600种, 是马兜铃科中种类最多的属。依据Flora of China, 我国有本属植物45种, 其中33种为中国特有。近些年, 国内大量的新类群被相继报道, 特别是云南、广西两地, 而另一些类群则得到了确认、恢复、重新发表或修订。最近, 基于形态和分子证据, 关木通属(Isotrema)因其花萼管急剧弯曲; 合蕊柱3裂; 雄蕊6, 成对与合蕊柱裂片对生; 蒴果由上而下开裂等区别特征而从广义马兜铃属中被分出独立成属。本文基于大量的野外调查、标本鉴定、数码照片考证和相关文献的仔细研究, 重新梳理了中国马兜铃属和关木通属的种类及分布情况, 确认现阶段中国马兜铃属17种和关木通属58种1亚种, 并一一记述同时编制了最新的检索表。其中, 柔叶关木通(I. mollis)、线叶关木通(I. neolongifolia)的种级地位得到重新确认, 并提供了图版。探讨了优贵马兜铃(A. gentilis)、川滇马兜铃(A. chuandianensis)和纤细马兜铃(A. gracillima)的关系, 昆明关木通(I. kunmingense)与波氏关木通(A. bonatii)的关系, 以及卵叶关木通(I. ovatifolium)、葫芦叶关木通(I. cucurbitoides)、西藏关木通(I. griffithii)、过石珠(I. versicolor)、大别山关木通(I. dabieshanensis)等复合群和袋形关木通(I. saccata)等物种存在的问题。

关键词: 植物标本, 采集, 分类, 分布, 复合群, 检索表, 云南

Abstract

Aristolochia (s. l.) is widely distributed in tropical, subtropical and temperate regions of the world, with monochlamydeous and tubular flowers, gynostemia, inferior ovaries, axile placentations, pluriovulate capsules, and others as the main characters. It is the largest genus in Aristolochiaceae, which consists of about 600 species. According to Flora of China, there are 45 species in China, 33 of which are endemic. In recent years, many new species have been discovered in China, especially in Yunnan and Guangxi. Additionally, some taxa were confirmed, reinstated, republished and revised. Isotrema, previously treated as a subgenus of Aristolochia, was recently reinstated as an independent genus based on molecular and morphological evidences. This genus has strongly curved calyxes, 3-lobed gynostemia with paired anthers on the outer surface of each gynostemium segment, and basipetally dehiscent capsules. Through extensive field work, careful examination of many specimens, digital photos and related literatures, an updated checklist and identification key of Aristolochia (s. s.) and Isotrema in China are presented here. Relevant discussions and distribution for the 17 species of Aristolochia, 58 species and one subspecies of Isotrema are also provided. Among them, I. mollis and I. neolongifolia are reinstated and illustrated, the relationship among A. gentilis, A. chuandianensis and A. gracillima, and the relationship between I. kunmingense and A. bonatii are discussed, knotty taxa, such as I. ovatifolium complex, I. cucurbitoides complex, I. griffithii complex, I. versicolor complex, I. dabieshanensis complex and suspected species I. saccata, are also discussed.

Key words: plant specimen, collection, classification, distribution, complex, identification key, Yunnan