生物多样性 ›› 2018, Vol. 26 ›› Issue (2): 158-170.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2017321

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

青藏高原有蹄类动物多样性和特有性: 演化与保护

蒋志刚1,2,*(), 李立立1,2,3, 胡一鸣1,2, 胡慧建4, 李春旺1,2, 平晓鸽1,2, 罗振华5   

  1. 1 .中国科学院动物研究所动物生态与保护生物学院重点实验室, 北京 100101
    2 .中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
    3 .中国科学院西双版纳热带植物园, 云南勐腊 666303
    4 .广东省生物资源应用研究所, 广州 510260
    5 .华中师范大学生命科学学院, 武汉 430079
  • 收稿日期:2017-12-04 接受日期:2018-02-07 出版日期:2018-04-02 发布日期:2018-05-05
  • 通讯作者: 蒋志刚
  • 作者简介:

    # 共同第一作者

  • 基金资助:
    科技基础性专项(2013FY110300)和环境保护部生物多样性专项

Diversity and endemism of ungulates on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau: Evolution and conservation

Zhigang Jiang1,2,*(), Lili Li1,2,3, Yiming Hu1,2, Huijian Hu4, Chunwang Li1,2, Xiaoge Ping1,2, Zhenhua Luo5   

  1. 1 Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101
    2 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
    3 Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Mengla, Yunnan 666303
    4 Guangdong Institute of Applied Biological Resources, Guangzhou 510260
    5 School of Life Sciences, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079
  • Received:2017-12-04 Accepted:2018-02-07 Online:2018-04-02 Published:2018-05-05
  • Contact: Jiang Zhigang
  • About author:

    # Co-first authors

摘要:

青藏高原是地球上一个独特的自然地理单元, 具有丰富的生境类型和生物种类, 是生物多样性与全球环境变化领域的热点研究区域。青藏高原发育着独特的动物区系, 尤其是有蹄类动物, 如藏羚(Pantholops hodgsonii)、野牦牛(Bos mutus)、藏原羚(Procapra picticaudata)、普氏原羚(P. przewalskii)、白唇鹿(Przewalskium albirostris)等青藏高原特有动物。在本文中, 我们探讨了如下问题: 青藏高原有多少种有蹄类动物?有多少种特有有蹄类动物?其分布格局如何?生存状况如何?保护现状如何?我们首先确定了青藏高原动物地理区的地理边界。发现青藏高原有28种有蹄类, 其中10种是青藏高原特有种。青藏高原有蹄类种数占中国有蹄类的42%, 单位面积上的有蹄类物种密度比中国现生有蹄类物种平均密度高62%。特有种比例高达36%。然而, 青藏高原有蹄类物种分布不均匀, 其丰富度呈东部高西部低格局, 而高原特有有蹄类则分布于高原腹地。青藏高原有蹄类动物生存受威胁比例高, 其中71%为受威胁物种, 54%被列入濒危野生动植物种国际贸易公约(CITES)附录I或附录II。野外调查发现大额牛(Bos frontalis)已经野外灭绝, 目前仅在高黎贡山有人工养殖的群体。青藏高原有蹄类物种红色名录指数从1998-2015年呈现持续下降趋势, 全球气候变化将加剧这一趋势。青藏高原有蹄类受威胁局面仍在继续, 物种生存状况持续恶化。虽然经过40年的自然保护区建设, 但一些青藏高原有蹄类的重要种群与栖息地并没有被自然保护区和新建的三江源国家公园所覆盖。因此, 在开发青藏高原、实现人类社会经济发展目标的同时, 应尽量保存高原野生动物种群与生境, 实现青藏高原草地生态系统的可持续利用与生物多样性保护的双赢目标。

关键词: 青藏高原, 演化, 区系, 全球变化, 多样性, 特有性, 泛第三极, 一带一路

Abstract:

The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau is a unique physical geographical unit, rich in habitat types and species, and a hot spot in biodiversity and global environmental change research. Unique fauna evolves on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Among these wild animals are the endemic hoofed animals which possess unique characteristics, such as Tibetan antelope (Pantholops hodgsonii), wild yak (Bos mutus), Tibetan gazelle (Procapra picticaudata), Przewalski’s gazelle (P. przewalskii), and white-lipped deer (Przewalskium albirostris). In this study, we explored the following questions: How many ungulate species are there on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau? How many endemic ungulate species are there? What is the distribution pattern of these species? What is the status of their survival? What is their conservation status? We firstly identified the geographic boundaries of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. On the plateau, there are 28 ungulate species, 10 of which are endemic to the plateau. The ungulates of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau account for 42% of China’s extant ungulate species whereas the density of the hoofed species per unit area on the plateau is 62% higher than that of the whole country. However, the distribution of ungulate species on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau is uneven, and shows a pattern with low species density in the western region but high species density in the eastern part of the plateau, in contrast to the high species density of the endemic ungulates in the hinterland of the plateau. However, the ratio of threatened ungulates on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau is high, among them, 71% of the ungulates are threatened species, 54% are included in CITES Appendix I or II. The Red List Index of ungulate species on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau has continued to decline from 1998 to 2015, and this trend is compounded and worsened by the trend of global change, indicating that the living status of ungulates on the plateau is continuously deteriorating. Through four decades of conservation in the country, some important populations and habitats of the ungulates on the plateau are not protected by nature reserves and the newly established the Three-River-Source National Park. Therefore, to achieve the win-win goal of human social, and economic development and nature conservation on the plateau, we should manage the grassland ecosystems sustainably, save wildlife populations and habitats, and protect biodiversity on the plateau.

Key words: Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, evolution, fauna, global change, diversity, endemism, Pan Third Pole, One-Belt-One-Road