生物多样性 ›› 2017, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (9): 981-989.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2017052

• 研究报告: 植物多样性 • 上一篇    下一篇

南麂列岛砂质潮间带底栖硅藻多样性与群落结构的时空变化

李宇航1, 陈万东2, 蔡厚才2, 孙忠民1,4, 徐奎栋1,3,4,*()   

  1. 1 中国科学院海洋研究所海洋生物分类与系统演化实验室, 山东青岛 266071
    2 南麂列岛国家级海洋自然保护区管理局, 浙江平阳 325401
    3 青岛海洋科学与技术国家实验室海洋生物学与生物技术功能实验室, 山东青岛 266071
    4 中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2017-02-21 接受日期:2017-07-26 出版日期:2017-09-20 发布日期:2017-10-04
  • 通讯作者: 徐奎栋
  • 作者简介:# 共同第一作者
  • 基金资助:
    南麂列岛国家级海洋自然保护区博士后研究项目(NJKJ-2015-005)

Spatio-temporal variation of benthic diatom diversity and community structure in a sandy intertidal zone of the Nanji Islands, China

Yuhang Li1, Wandong Chen2, Houcai Cai2, Zhongmin Sun1,4, Kuidong Xu1,3,4,*()   

  1. 1 Department of Marine Organism Taxonomy and Phylogeny, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, Shandong 266071
    2 Nanji Islands National Marine Natural Reserve Administration Bureau, Pingyang, Zhejiang 325401
    3 Laboratory for Marine Biology and Biotechnology, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao, Shandong 266071
    4 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
  • Received:2017-02-21 Accepted:2017-07-26 Online:2017-09-20 Published:2017-10-04
  • Contact: Xu Kuidong
  • About author:# Co-first authors

摘要:

为了解南麂列岛国家级海洋自然保护区砂质潮间带底栖硅藻多样性与群落结构的现状及近20多年来的变化, 于2013年11月至2014年8月, 对南麂列岛火焜岙砂质潮间带的底栖硅藻进行了4个季节的采样和研究, 并与1981-1993年有关的历史资料进行了比较分析。本研究共鉴定底栖硅藻49属120种, 海岸曲解藻(Fallacia litoricola)、史氏双壁藻(Diploneis smithii)、稀疏双壁藻(D. parca)等17种为目前的优势种。Shannon多样性指数在2.388-3.445之间, 以春季最高, 秋季最低; 在空间分布上依次为: 中潮区 > 低潮区 > 高潮区。相似性分析(analysis of similarities, ANOSIM)表明底栖硅藻群落在不同潮区间差异显著, 而季节差异不显著。BIOENV分析显示盐度与底栖硅藻群落结构的相关性最高。本研究结果表明, 南麂列岛砂质潮间带的底栖硅藻群落结构近几十年来已发生了明显变化。与1981-1993年南麂列岛的3次调查数据相比, 目级阶元减少了2个, 科级阶元增加了7个, 而属级和种级阶元较过去的29属55种有了显著增加, 这可能是分类研究强度增加所致。但分类学多样性降低, 平均分类差异指数Δ+由过去的79.79降至71.41; 且过去记录的大个体固着类群被现今的小个体固着类群和间隙运动类群(epipelon)所取代, 这可能是火焜岙过去人类活动频繁、有机质过量排放的长期效应所致。

关键词: 底栖硅藻, 多样性, 群落结构, 优势种, 南麂列岛

Abstract:

To know the status and 20 years’ variation of benthic diatom biodiversity and community structure in intertidal sandy sediment in the Nanji Islands National Marine Nature Reserve (NINMNR) of China, we investigated community composition and seasonal variations of marine benthic diatoms between November 2013 and August 2014 in the intertidal zone of the Huokun’ao sandy beach in the NINMNR, and compared this to historic data obtained from intertidal sandy sediments of the Nanji Islands. A total of 120 benthic diatom species belonging to 49 genera were identified. Among these, 17 species were classified as dominant species, including Fallacia litoricola, Diploneis smithii and D. parca. The Shannon diversity index (H?) values of benthic diatoms varied between 2.388 and 3.455. The peak of H? appeared in spring, and the lowest value occurred in fall. Spatially, the highest H? value was present in the middle tidal zone and the lowest was found in the high tide zone. The result of analysis of similarities (ANOSIM) showed there were significant differences in the benthic community between the high, middle and low tidal areas, while no significant differences were observed between the four seasons. The result of BIOENV suggested that salinity was the most important factor regulating the benthic diatom community. The present study and historic data indicate that the community structure of benthic diatoms in the sandy sediments of Nanji Islands changed markedly over the past few decades. Compared with data obtained from three surveys conducted between 1981 and 1993, the number of diatom orders has decreased from 16 to 14, while the number of families has increased from 24 to 31, and the number of genera and species has significantly increased from 29 to 49 and from 55 to 120, respectively. The increase of diatom taxa is likely due to the enhanced intensity of taxonomic study. Nonetheless, the average taxonomic distinctness index (Δ+) values decreased from 79.79 to71.41. Strikingly, large attached diatoms recorded in the past have been replaced by small attached forms as well as epipelons. This could be the result of intense human activities and the long-term effects of over-discharged organic matter.

Key words: marine benthic diatoms, biodiversity, community structure, dominant species, Nanji Islands