生物多样性 ›› 2017, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (9): 990-998.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2017119

• 研究报告: 植物多样性 • 上一篇    下一篇

贵州侗族地区香禾糯品种多样性的变化

雷启义1,2, 周江菊2, 罗静2, 张文华2, 孙军2, 龙春林1,3,*()   

  1. 1 中央民族大学生命与环境科学学院, 北京 100081
    2 凯里学院环境与生命科学学院, 贵州凯里 556000
    3 中国科学院昆明植物研究所, 昆明 650201
  • 收稿日期:2017-04-13 接受日期:2017-06-30 出版日期:2017-09-20 发布日期:2017-10-04
  • 通讯作者: 龙春林
  • 作者简介:# 共同第一作者
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(31360070, 31161140345, 3171101235)、国家科技计划项目(2012FY110300)、贵州省自然科学基金(20102078)、贵州省自然科学联合基金(LKK2013-05, LH2015-7752)、贵州省教育厅自然科学项目基金(20090082)、贵州省教育厅社科基金(S2008042)、中央民族大学学术团队建设项目(2015MDTD16C, ydzxxk201618)、2012环境保护部南京环境科学研究所地方遗传资源调查项目和2017年贵州省教育厅创新群体项目

Changes in the numbers of Kam fragrant glutinous rice varieties in the Dong regions of Guizhou Province

Qiyi Lei1,2, Jiangju Zhou2, Jing Luo2, Wenhua Zhang2, Jun Sun2, Chunlin Long1,3,*()   

  1. 1 College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Minzu University of China, Beijing 100081
    2 College of Environmental and Life Sciences, Kaili University, Kaili, Guizhou 556000
    3 Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650201
  • Received:2017-04-13 Accepted:2017-06-30 Online:2017-09-20 Published:2017-10-04
  • Contact: Long Chunlin
  • About author:# Co-first authors

摘要:

香禾糯是侗族地区广泛种植并具有重要意义的一类糯稻农家品种。探讨香禾糯地方品种多样性变化的历史与现实问题, 有利于及时制定与侗族地区经济和传统文化发展相适应的香禾糯种质资源保护策略和措施。本研究运用民族植物学、文化人类学、生态学等多学科综合研究方法, 自2005年以来, 对贵州侗族地区香禾糯品种多样性的变化情况进行了为期12年的调查和统计。结果表明, 历史上香禾糯在侗族地区的栽培和利用非常普遍, 但从清雍正年间至新中国成立初期, 贵州侗族地区经历了3次大型的“糯改粘”运动, 导致香禾糯种植面积和品种数量大幅度减少; 目前黎平、从江和榕江县侗族地区香禾糯品种大约为100个, 比20世纪80年代初调查到的363个品种减少了72.5%, 即使在黄岗、高仟等香禾糯种植传统保持相对较好的侗族村寨, 其种植面积和品种数量也减少了50%以上, 而且这种减少趋势越来越严重。香禾糯品种减少的重要原因是杂交稻的大面积推广, 而近年来随着侗族地区社会、经济和文化等方面的快速发展与变迁, 香禾糯品种多样性正在面临新一轮的冲击, 消失速度加快。香禾糯的多样性维系与侗族的生产生活和传统文化关系密切, 需要及时采取措施加以保护。

关键词: 地方品种, 侗族, 香禾糯, 变化趋势, 农业生物多样性

Abstract

The Kam (Dong people) fragrant glutinous rice is a group of sticky rice varieties, which have been widely cultivated in Dong areas with great success. Revealing the history and status of the diversity of Kam fragrant glutinous rice is helpful for the timely identification of conservation strategies and implementation plans for preserving these germplasm resources, with respect to the economic development and traditional culture in Dong ethnic areas. The authors and their collaborators carried out research on germplasm diversity of Kam fragrant glutinous rice in Dong areas of Guizhou for 12 years using multiple approaches including ethnobotany, cultural anthropology, and ecology. Results showed that Kam fragrant glutinous rice has been widely grown in the Dong areas for many years. From the beginning of the Yongzheng period of the Qing Dynasty to the foundation of New China, the Dong areas of Guizhou have suffered three large-scale movements transforming glutinous rice into non-glutinous rice, which resulted in greatly reduced plantation areas of Kam fragrant glutinous rice and the number of landraces. At present, there are about 100 glutinous rice landraces in Congjiang, Liping, and Rongjiang counties, a decrease of 72.5% as compared to the 363 landraces investigated in the early 1980s. Even in the Dong villages such as Huanggang and Gaoqian where the Kam fragrant glutinous rice landraces have been maintained carefully, their plantation areas and landrace numbers have been reduced by more than 50%, and this trend is becoming more and more evident. The expansion of hybrid rice over a large scale has greatly influenced the reduction of local landraces. Especially in recent years, the rapid development and transition of social, economic, and cultural aspects of the Dong communities have threatened the Kam fragrant glutinous rice landraces, which are quickly disappearing. The maintenance of the diversity of varieties of Kam fragrant glutinous rice was closely related to the production, life, and traditional culture of the Dong people. It is, therefore, necessary to adopt strategies and measures suitable for the development of the economy and traditional culture for the conservation of these plants in Dong ethnic areas.

Key words: landraces, Dong people, glutinous rice, changing trend, agrobiodiversity