生物多样性 ›› 2017, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (2): 136-146.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2016292

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东亚第三纪孑遗植物的亲缘地理学: 现状与趋势

邱英雄*(), 鹿启祥, 张永华, 曹亚男   

  1. 浙江大学生命科学学院濒危动植物保护生物学教育部重点实验室, 杭州 310058
  • 收稿日期:2016-10-12 接受日期:2016-12-08 出版日期:2017-02-20 发布日期:2017-03-06
  • 通讯作者: 邱英雄
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(31370241, 31570214)和国家自然科学基金国际合作项目(31511140095, 31561143015)

Phylogeography of East Asia’s Tertiary relict plants: current progress and future prospects

Yingxiong Qiu*(), Qixiang Lu, Yonghua Zhang, Yanan Cao   

  1. Key Laboratory of Conservation Biology for Endangered Wildlife of the Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058
  • Received:2016-10-12 Accepted:2016-12-08 Online:2017-02-20 Published:2017-03-06
  • Contact: Qiu Yingxiong

摘要:

通过分析比较近年来东亚第三纪孑遗植物的种群遗传学与亲缘地理学的研究结果, 总结了它们的谱系地理格局式样, 分析了其形成的共同地史或气候成因, 并对未来的研究提出了展望。东亚孑遗植物的谱系地理式样主要表现为以下4个方面: (1)中新世中期至晚期的气候变冷变干驱使孑遗植物发生了近期的物种形成, 而上新世末以及更新世的气候变化则促进了它们的种内谱系分化、遗传多样性形成以及种群的收缩与扩张, 种群的收缩与扩张导致部分类群形成地理谱系“缝合带”。(2)由于不同的植物类群具有不同的生态位需求以及生物学特点, 更新世冰期暴露的东海陆桥对中国-日本间断分布的孑遗植物具有不同的“过滤”与“廊道”效应, 从而导致其呈现不同的遗传隔离式样。(3)上新世末青藏高原的快速隆升以及上新世末/更新世初东亚季风气候的加强可能是多个亚热带地区分布的孑遗植物沿四川盆地附近发生东西谱系分化的根本原因, 也是西北干旱带分布的孑遗植物发生东西谱系分化的驱动因素。(4)自晚中新世以来的全球气候变冷变干驱使部分第三纪孑遗植物在更新世以前就已经从中国大陆或日本本岛迁入台湾, 并发生隔离分化, 形成了新的物种或地理谱系。总之, 历史与当代的地理以及环境共同影响了东亚第三纪孑遗植物的地理分布、遗传多样性、谱系分化以及物种形成。最后, 我们强调了目前由单位点的简单分子钟模型的运用造成的研究不足, 并对未来的研究提出了展望, 即基因组数据和生物地理模型的使用以及群落水平的整合亲缘地理学研究是未来的研究方向。

关键词: 东亚, 第三纪孑遗植物, 亲缘地理学, 冰期避难所, 物种形成, 迁移

Abstract:

In this review, based on recent studies of population genetics and phylogeographics of East Asia’s Tertiary relict plants, we have outlined the main phylogeographic patterns and processes. We also summarize common geographic and environmental factors which may contribute to the phylogeographic patterns of East Asia’s Tertiary relict plants and present future challenges and research prospects. There are four recurrent phylogeographic scenarios identified by different case studies, including: (1) the global cooling and aridification during the Middle and Late Miocene induced recent speciation, with climate change during the Late Pliocene and Pleistocene accounting for their intra-specific lineage divergence, genetic diversification and demographic expansion/contraction. The latitudinal contraction/expansion can lead to the formation of “suture zone” for some relict plants; (2) the effects of the formation of the glacial East China Sea land bridge, as a “corridor” or “filter”, have to account not only for habitat preferences per se but also for other biological features of different relict plant species; (3) the uplift of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) during the Late Pliocene and the intensification of East Asian monsoon system (EAMS) are the most suggestive factors responsible for the major phylogeographic break between the western and eastern lineages across the Sichuan Basin and northwestern arid regions; and (4) some Tertiary relict plants migrated southward to Taiwan from mainland China or Japan before the Pleistocene under global climatic cooling and aridification since the Late Miocene, and refugial isolation that occurred between Taiwan and mainland Asia accelerated vicariant lineage diversification and speciation. Overall, both historical and contemporary geography and environment have affected the distribution, genetic diversity, lineage divergence and speciation of East Asia’s Tertiary relict plants. Finally, we emphasize notable gaps in our knowledge due to the long-term application of simple molecular clock based on very limited genetic markers, and outline future research prospects for disentangling the evolution and biogeographic history of East Asia’s Tertiary relict flora. We present the utilization of genome data and biogeography models and integrative phylogeographic research of multi-taxon communities as possible future directions.

Key words: East Asia, Tertiary relict plants, phylogeography, glacial refugia, speciation, migration