生物多样性 ›› 2015, Vol. 23 ›› Issue (5): 591-600.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2015114

所属专题: 中国自然观察专题

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基于最受关注濒危物种分布的国家级自然保护区空缺分析

闻丞1,2,*(), 顾垒1,2, 王昊1,2, 吕植1,2, 胡若成1, 钟嘉3   

  1. 1 北京大学生命科学学院自然保护与社会发展研究中心, 北京 100871
    2 山水自然保护中心, 北京 100871
    3 中国观鸟组织联合行动平台, 昆明 650224
  • 收稿日期:2015-05-06 接受日期:2015-09-20 出版日期:2015-09-20 发布日期:2015-10-12
  • 通讯作者: 闻丞

GAP analysis on national nature reserves in China based on the distribution of endangered species

Cheng Wen1,2,*(), Lei Gu1,2, Hao Wang1,2, Zhi Lü1,2, Ruocheng Hu1, Jia Zhong3   

  1. 1 Center for Nature and Society, School of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871
    2 Shanshui Conservation Center, Beijing 100871
    3 China Bird Watching Society Networks, Kunming 650224
  • Received:2015-05-06 Accepted:2015-09-20 Online:2015-09-20 Published:2015-10-12
  • Contact: Wen Cheng

摘要:

我们收集整理了中国96个最受关注濒危物种的分布点信息, 利用Maxent分布模型模拟其中分布点信息较为充分的46个物种的潜在分布区, 将其余50个分布信息极少物种的分布点直接标示在地图上。通过分析单个物种分布被国家级自然保护区覆盖的比例, 以及国家级自然保护区覆盖最受濒危物种分布热点地区的比例, 对国家级自然保护区进行了空缺分析。截至2014年底, 仅16个最受关注濒危物种的预测分布区被保护区覆盖超过10%。在分布有最受关注濒危物种的数目可能超过10种的像元(0.8421º)中, 仅有8.27%得到国家级自然保护区保护; 另外, 仅有10.9%的最受关注濒危哺乳动物分布热点地区、1.13%的最受关注濒危鸟类分布热点地区和7.26%的最受关注濒危植物分布热点地区得到国家级自然保护区覆盖。结果显示国家级自然保护区对大部分最受关注濒危物种覆盖不足, 尤其是对其中的所有长距离迁徙鸟类; 国家级自然保护区对最受关注濒危物种分布热点地区覆盖也不足, 尤其是在中国东部和南部地区, 自然保护区在这些地区的布局亟待优化。

关键词: 国家级自然保护区, GAP分析, 物种分布预测

Abstract:

We defined all plant and animal species under level-I special state protection, and avian species classified as CR and EN in the IUCN Red List as the most concerned endangered species (MCES). GAP analysis was first applied to national nature reserves (NRs) in China based on the distribution of MCES. Through historical specimen collection data, published research articles on MCES, and bird-watching records, we collected occurrence sites for 96 MCES. We simulated 46 species (with at least 5 known occurrence sites) distributions using a Maxent model and drew scatter diagrams with occurrence sites of 50 other species (with little information). Distribution coverage of each MCES by national NRs was calculated. We defined the geological grid (0.8421º) on which at least 10 MCES would occur as a hotspot for MCES, and the grid on which at least 3 mammals, or 8 birds, or 3 plants of MCES as a hotspot for mammals, birds, and plants of MCES, respectively. The coverage of these hotspots by national NRs was also calculated. We found that there are only 16 MCES with over 10% range covered by national NRs. By 2014, national NRs only covered 8.27% of MCES hotspots, and 10.9%, 1.13%, and 7.26% of mammals, birds and plants MCES hotspots, respectively. The results indicated that there is a significant gap between sufficient coverage of national NRs and MCES distribution and their hotspots in China. The coverage of national NRs for birds, especially long-distance migrants, is exceptionally low, while the greatest gap of NRs occurs in hotspots for MCES in east and south China.

Key words: national nature reserve (national NR), GAP analysis, species distribution simulation