生物多样性 ›› 2021, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (7): 938-949.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2021010

• 研究报告:动物多样性 • 上一篇    下一篇

四川诺水河珍稀水生动物国家级自然保护区鱼类资源现状

梁聪1#, 刘衎1#, 王小东1, 黎树1, 吴波2, 向朋1, 宋昭彬1,*()   

  1. 1.四川大学生命科学学院生物资源与生态环境教育部重点实验室, 成都 610065
    2.成都耶拿环保科技有限公司, 成都 610051
  • 收稿日期:2021-01-08 接受日期:2021-05-19 出版日期:2021-07-20 发布日期:2021-06-13
  • 通讯作者: * 宋昭彬 E-mail:zbsong@scu.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:# 共同第一作者
  • 基金资助:
    四川省水产局科研项目

Status of fish resources in the Sichuan Nuoshuihe Precious Aquatic Animal National Nature Reserve

Cong Liang1#, Kan Liu1#, Xiaodong Wang1, Shu Li1, Bo Wu2, Peng Xiang1, Zhaobin Song1,*()   

  1. 1 Key Laboratory of Bio-Resources and Eco-Environment of Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065
    2 Chengdu Jena Environmental Protection Technology Co., Ltd., Chengdu 610051
  • Received:2021-01-08 Accepted:2021-05-19 Online:2021-07-20 Published:2021-06-13
  • Contact: * Zhaobin Song E-mail:zbsong@scu.edu.cn
  • About author:# Co-first authors

摘要:

四川诺水河珍稀水生动物国家级自然保护区由嘉陵江支流渠江上游的大通江及支流小通江组成, 为全面了解该保护区的鱼类资源现状, 作者于2015年11月至2017年1月对30个采样点进行了5次资源调查。结果显示, 保护区共分布鱼类57种, 隶属4目13科45属, 其中调查采集47种, 访问调查获得10种。国家二级重点保护鱼类有1种, 即岩原鲤(Procypris rabaudi), 长江上游特有鱼类有12种, 列入《中国脊椎动物红色名录》的易危鱼类3种。保护区以小型鱼类为主, 优势种为宽鳍鱲(Zacco platypus)、嘉陵颌须鮈(Gnarhopogon herzensteini)和切尾拟鲿(Pseudobagrus truncatus)。保护区鱼类多样性较高, Shannon- Wiener多样性指数、Margalef物种丰富度指数、Simpson优势度指数和Pielou均匀度指数分别为2.900、5.198、0.931、0.753。Jaccard相似性系数表明, 大通江和小通江鱼类群落相似度较高, 同一河流不同河段间的相似度整体上与河段间距离成反比; 而不同河流相似海拔高度河段间鱼类群落相似度更高。保护区鱼类资源的衰退主要由过度捕捞、栖息地破坏以及水体污染等人类活动所致。

关键词: 四川诺水河珍稀水生动物国家级自然保护区, 鱼类资源, 优势种, 物种多样性, 群落相似性

Abstract

Aim: The Sichuan Nuoshuihe Precious Aquatic Animal National Nature Reserve is located in upper reach of the Qujiang River, a tributary of the Jialing River, and is comprised of the Datong River and its tributary Xiaotong River. In order to understand the status of fish resources in the reserve, a comprehensive investigation was carried out across the rivers’ watersheds.
Methods: The investigation was implemented in November 2015; March, May, and September 2016; and January 2017 at a total of 30 sampling sites. It took one to three days at each sampling site for each survey to collect fish samples by using gill nets, ground cages, and small backpack electric fishing machines (approved by the Fishery Administrative Department).
Results: A total of 57 fish species belonging to 4 orders, 13 families and 45 genera were recorded in the reserve. Forty-seven species were collected during the survey, and the other 10 species were confirmed through fishermen. Among them, Procypris rabaudi is the second-class state key protected wildlife in China. Twelve of the fish species are endemic to the upper Yangtze River and three species are listed as vulnerable in Red List of China’s Vertebrates. The fish in the reserve are dominated by small-bodied species, of which Zacco platypus, Gnarhopogon herzensteini and Pseudobagrus truncatus are the most dominant species. It was shown that the diversity of the fish community in the reserve is rich, with Shannon-Wiener diversity index, Margalef richness index, Simpson dominance index and Pielou evenness index of 2.900, 5.198, 0.931 and 0.753, respectively. The Jaccard’s similarity coefficients showed high similarity of species composition between the Datong and Xiaotong rivers.
Conclusions: The similarity of fish communities between different reaches of the same river (the Datong River or Xiaotong River) showed negative correlation to their distance, and the reaches of the Datong River and Xiaotong River with similar elevation range showed high similarity of fish community. The decline of fish resources in the reserve was mainly caused by anthropogenic activities such as overfishing, habitats destruction and water pollution.

Key words: Sichuan Nuoshuihe Precious Aquatic Animal National Nature Reserve, fish resources, dominant species, species diversity, community similarity