生物多样性 ›› 2017, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (5): 464-480.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2017024

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Beta多样性分解: 方法、应用与展望

斯幸峰, 赵郁豪, 陈传武, 任鹏, 曾頔, 吴玲兵, 丁平*()   

  1. 浙江大学生命科学学院, 杭州 310058
  • 收稿日期:2017-01-24 接受日期:2017-05-13 出版日期:2017-05-20 发布日期:2017-06-06
  • 通讯作者: 丁平
  • 基金资助:
    基金项目: 国家自然科学基金(31500453, 31210103908)

Beta-diversity partitioning: methods, applications and perspectives

Xingfeng Si, Yuhao Zhao, Chuanwu Chen, Peng Ren, Di Zeng, Lingbing Wu, Ping Ding*()   

  1. College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058
  • Received:2017-01-24 Accepted:2017-05-13 Online:2017-05-20 Published:2017-06-06
  • Contact: Ding Ping

摘要:

Beta多样性是指不同群落间物种组成的差异, 由物种周转(或物种替换)和嵌套(或丰富度差异)这两种过程决定。Beta多样性分解是将这两种过程对总体beta多样性的作用进行拆分, 然后分别探讨这两种过程对群落间物种组成差异的影响。2010年之后, 人们提出了beta多样性分解的方法, 其中占据主导地位的是由Andrés Baselga于2010年提出的BAS法(总体beta多样性分解为物种周转和嵌套组分)和由János Podani和Dénes Schmera于2011年以及José C. Carvalho等于2012年提出的POD法(总体beta多样性分解为物种替换和丰富度差异组分)。这两种分解方法引起了持续的争论, 促进了该领域的快速发展。作者归纳分析了2010年后有关beta多样性分解的文献后发现, 使用BAS法的论文无论在发表量和引用次数上都多于POD法(75% vs. 20%)。Beta多样性分解的研究主要集中在欧洲(45%), 研究类群则以动物(64%)为主。本文在回顾beta多样性分解方法的提出及其发展过程的基础上, 从时空维度(纬度梯度、海拔梯度、生境片断化过程以及季节和年际动态)、多样性的不同方面(物种、功能和谱系多样性)和不同生物类群之间的比较等研究角度出发, 进一步阐述了beta多样性分解方法在探讨生物多样性分布格局以及形成机制中的应用。对于beta多样性分解的研究, 我们认为需要深入探讨的问题有: (1) beta多样性分解方法的比较分析和整合; (2)结合物种多度信息探讨beta多样性及其组分的分布格局; (3)对大尺度下beta多样性分解的结果进行普适性验证。

关键词: 岛屿生物地理学, 生物多样性保护, 群落构建, 嵌套, 周转, 功能多样性, 谱系多样性, 生境片断化

Abstract:

Beta diversity describes the variation in species composition among communities within a region and it is determined by two antithetic processes: species turnover (or species replacement), and nestedness (or difference in richness). Beta-diversity partitioning aims to separate these two processes when examining species composition among communities, and to reveal their underlying mechanisms. Since 2010, the partitioning methods were proposed following two dominant frameworks: the BAS method proposed by Andrés Baselga in 2010 (partitioning overall beta diversity into turnover and nestedness components) and the POD method proposed by János Podani and Dénes Schmera in 2011 and José C. Carvalho et al. in 2012 (partitioning overall beta diversity into species replacement and richness difference components). With the continuous debate on the nature of the BAS and POD methods, studies on beta-diversity partitioning have developed rapidly worldwide. We reviewed journal articles in the field of beta-diversity partitioning since 2010. Results showed that the number of publications and citations using the BAS method were greater than those using the POD method (75% vs. 20%). In those publications, most of study sites were located in Europe (45%) and research taxa were dominated by animals (64%). Here, we introduce the history and development of beta-diversity partitioning, potential applications in studying biodiversity distributions across spatial-temporal scales (latitudinal/altitudinal gradients, habitat fragmentation, seasonal and annual dynamics), multiple-faceted diversity (taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic diversity), and comparisons among various biological taxa. We point out the following directions in the field of beta-diversity partitioning in the future: (1) the synthesis and comparative analysis of the methods of beta-diversity partitioning; (2) examining patterns of overall beta diversity and its components by incorporating species abundance; and (3) testing the generality of results yielded from beta-diversity partitioning across large scales.

Key words: island biogeography, biodiversity conservation, community assembly, nestedness, turnover, functional diversity, phylogenetic diversity, habitat fragmentation