生物多样性 ›› 2010, Vol. 18 ›› Issue (6): 660-666.DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.2010.660

所属专题: 外来物种入侵:机制、影响与防控

• 论文 • 上一篇    

中国外来陆生草本植物: 多样性和生态学特性

杨博1; 央金卓嘎2; 潘晓云1*; 徐海根3; 李博1   

  1. 1复旦大学生物多样性与生态工程教育部重点实验室、长江河口湿地生态系统野外科学观测研究站, 上海 200433
    2西藏自治区高原生物研究所, 拉萨 850001
    3国家环境保护总局南京环境科学研究所, 南京 210042
  • 收稿日期:2010-05-13 出版日期:2010-11-20 发布日期:2011-01-31
  • 通讯作者: 潘晓云

Alien terrestrial herbs in China: diversity and ecological insights

Bo Yang1; Yangjin Zhuoga2; Xiaoyun Pan1*; Haigen Xu3; Bo Li1   

  1. 1Coastal Ecosystems Research Station of the Yangtze River Estuary, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Biodiversity Science and Ecological Engineering, Institute of Biodiversity Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433

    2Tibet Plateau Institute of Biology, Lhasa 850001

    3Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences, State Environmental Protection Administration, Nanjing 210042
  • Received:2010-05-13 Online:2010-11-20 Published:2011-01-31
  • Contact: Xiaoyun Pan

摘要:

构建包含基本生物学和生态学信息的外来物种数据库不仅对理解生物入侵分布格局至关重要, 同时也是制定外来种管理策略和解释生物入侵过程的重要一步。作者在前人研究的基础上构建了中国外来陆生草本植物数据库, 共收集到中国外来陆生草本植物800种, 分属37目72科; 其中约有60%集中在菊科、豆科、仙人掌科、禾本科、十字花科等10个优势科。中国外来陆生草本植物主要来源于美洲(407种, 占总数的47%), 主要分布在南亚热带—热带区(46%, 密度为4种/104km2), 其次为温带湿润区(26%, 密度约2种/104km2)和亚热带区(23%, 密度约2种/104km2), 旱—寒区(5%, 密度小于1种/104km2)分布较少。从生活型上看, 以多年生 (293种, 40%)和一年生 (272种, 37%)为主; 而从生境类型来看, 约有一半(46%)分布于“高养分高干扰”类型的生境。约有80%的物种属有意引入, 因此有意引入是陆生外来草本植物进入中国的主要途径。近2个世纪来, 外来陆生草本植物进入中国的速度快速增加, 约90%的物种在这个时期进入; 而近半个世纪以来, 外来陆生草本植物进入中国的速度快速增长, 约60%的物种在这个时期进入中国。本文所提供的中国外来陆生草本植物的生物学和生态学特征, 可以为管理层制定外来种相关管理和控制策略提供参考信息。

关键词: 生物入侵, 物种灭绝, 驱动因素, 尺度效应, 生态与进化后果, 生物多样性保护

Abstract:

A database of alien flora is important for better understanding the patterns of plant invasions, as well as explicating the mechanisms promoting plant invasion at local, regional and global scales. However, little attention has been paid to the construction of such a database of terrestrial alien herbs in China. Here, we attempt to summarize literature and reveal chronological and biogeographical patterns of alien herbaceous plant invasions. In total, 800 herbaceous alien species were identified, belonging to 37 orders and 72 families, ten families which account for 60% of the total flora. The families containing large numbers of species include Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Cactaceae, Poaceae and Brassicaceae. Species originating from the Americas made up 47% of total species. In relation to life forms, most species are perennial herbs (293 species, 40%) and annuals (272 species, 37%). About 46% of species are often found in highly disturbed habitats with rich resources. Our results suggest that, in China, terrestrial alien herbs are distributed throughout the entire country, with particularly high species richness in the Southeast (23% of total richness, 4 species per 10,000 km2). Eighty percent of alien plants were introduced into China intentionally, and there has been a steady increase in the number of neophyte species over the last two centuries, of which about 90% were introduced after 1800s and 60% post-1950s. The information on diversity and ecological characteristics of terrestrial alien herbs provided in this paper can be used for designing national management strategies for alien plants in China.