生物多样性 ›› 2014, Vol. 22 ›› Issue (6): 696-703.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2014.14225

所属专题: 野生动物的红外相机监测

• • 上一篇    下一篇

红外相机技术在我国野生动物监测中的应用: 问题与限制

张履冰1, 2, 崔绍朋1, 2, 黄元骏1, 2, 陈代强1, 2, 乔慧捷1, 李春旺1, 蒋志刚1, , A;*()   

  1. 1.中国科学院动物研究所动物生态与保护生物学重点实验室, 北京 100101
    2 .中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2014-10-23 接受日期:2014-11-23 出版日期:2014-11-20
  • 通讯作者: 蒋志刚 E-mail:jiangzg@ioz.ac.cn
  • 基金项目:
    国家科技基础性工作专项(2013FY110300)

Infrared camera traps in wildlife research and monitoring in China: issues and insights

Lvbing Zhang1, 2, Shaopeng Cui1, 2, Yuanjun Huang1, 2, Daiqiang Chen1, 2, Huijie Qiao1, Chunwang Li1, Zhigang Jiang1, *()   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
  • Received:2014-10-23 Accepted:2014-11-23 Online:2014-11-20
  • Contact: Jiang Zhigang E-mail:jiangzg@ioz.ac.cn

红外相机(camera traps)作为对野生动物进行“非损伤”性采样的技术, 已成为研究动物多样性、种群生态学及行为学的常用手段之一。其发展和普及为中国野生动物多样性和物种保育研究带来了诸多机会。如今, 国内大多数自然保护区都在运用红外相机技术开展物种监测工作。本文结合20年来已发表的相关研究, 从内容、实验设计以及发展趋势方面, 总结了目前红外相机技术在应用过程中出现的共性问题; 并就相机对动物的干扰性、影像识别、研究的适用范围及安全保障四个方面, 对该项技术在实践中存在的限制进行了探讨。最后结合红外相机技术未来的发展方向, 提出了建立技术规范、数据集成和共享、影像数据版权维护、提高监测效率等问题。

关键词: 红外相机技术, 野生动物监测, 多样性, 种群, 自然保护区

Infrared-triggered camera (camera trap) is a “non-invasive” method for detecting or recording wild animals, and is a useful tool for studying animal diversity, population ecology and animal behavior. The development of infrared camera traps facilitates contemporary biodiversity research and conservation efforts in China. In addition to researchers, most Chinese nature reserves are using camera traps to monitor animals. Based on publications from the past two decades, we summarized common issues related to research content, experimental design, and trends in infrared camera usage. We also discuss the drawbacks and limitations of infrared cameras in terms of disturbance to animals, image identification, and scope of application and security of the cameras in the field. Finally, we provide direction for the future establishment of monitoring protocols, data integration and sharing, and improving monitoring efficiency in using camera traps.

Key words: infrared triggered camera, camera trap, wild animal monitoring, biodiversity, population, nature reserve

图1

红外相机监测研究中投入捕获日(a)和抽样面积(b)频度分布图"

图2

不同植被类型和生境中开展红外相机监测研究的比例"

图3

红外相机监测研究的地域差异"

图4

国内红外相机监测研究发表论文数量的变化趋势(a)及相应的研究周期(从监测开始到结论发表的时间)(b)。"

图5

不同植被类型的生境内物种多样性监测结果比较"

我国野生动物监测研究中运用红外相机捕获鸟、兽概况"

动物类群 Taxon 种群或多样性研究
Researches on population ecology or biodiversity
行为学研究
Researches on animal behavior
频数*
Frequency
种类数*
Species number
频数
Frequency
种类数
Species number
哺乳纲 Mammalia
食肉目 Carnivora
犬科 Canidae 8 5
猫科 Felidae 27 7 3 1
鼬科 Mustelidae 46 8
熊猫科和熊科 Ailuropodidae, Ursidae 7 2
灵猫科 Viverridae 18 4
偶蹄目 Artiodactyla
鹿科 Cervidae 30 9 1 1
牛科 Bovidae 24 9
猪科 Suidae 16 1
麝科 Moschidae 4 3
骆驼科 Camelidae 1 1 1 1
灵长目 Primates
猴科 Cercopithecidae 8 4
懒猴科 Lorisidae 2 2
啮齿目 Rodentia
松鼠科 Sciuridae 33 9
鼠科 Muridae 14 >4
鼹形鼠科 Spalacidae 2 2
豪猪科 Hystricidae 5 1
兔形目 Lagomorpha
兔科 Leporidae 10 5
鼠兔科 Ochotonidae 1 1
奇蹄目 Perissodactyla
马科 Equidae 1 1
食虫类 Insectivora
鼩鼱科 Soricidae 2 1
猬科 Erinaceidae 3 1
鳞甲目 Pholidota
鲮鲤科 Manidae 1 1
树鼩目 Scandentia
树鼩科 Tupaiidae 1 1
翼手目 Chiroptera
狐蝠科 Pteropodidae 1 2
鸟纲 Aves
雀形目 Passeriformes 151 -
鸡形目 Galliformes 17 - 3 2
鸽形目 Columbiformes 4 -
隼形目 Falconiformes 8 -
鸮形目 Strigiformes 3 -
鴷形目 Coraciiformes 8 -
鸻形目 Charadriiformes 1 -
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