生物多样性 ›› 2014, Vol. 22 ›› Issue (6): 752-757.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2014.14179

所属专题: 野生动物的红外相机监测

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卡拉麦里山有蹄类自然保护区水源地蒙古野驴的活动节律: 基于红外相机监测数据

吴洪潘1, 2, 初红军1, 2, 3, , A;*(), 王渊3, 马建伟3, 葛炎2, 布兰2   

  1. 1 .新疆农业大学动物科学学院, 乌鲁木齐 830052
    2 .新疆卡拉麦里山有蹄类自然保护区阿勒泰管理站, 新疆阿勒泰 836500
    3 .新疆大学资源与环境科学学院, 乌鲁木齐 830046
  • 收稿日期:2014-08-27 接受日期:2014-12-04 出版日期:2014-11-20
  • 通讯作者: 初红军 E-mail:hongjunchu@vip.163.com
  • 基金项目:
    新疆自治区科技支撑项目(201233131)、卡拉麦里山有蹄类自然保护区阿勒泰管理站中央财政森林生态效益补偿基金和科技基础性工作专项重大项目(2013FY110300)

Monitoring activity rhythms of Equus hemionus at watering holes by camera traps in Mount Kalamaili Ungulate Nature Reserve, Xinjiang

Hongpan Wu1, 2, Hongjun Chu1, 2, 3, *(), Yuan Wang3, Jianwei Ma3, Yan Ge2, Lan Bu2   

  1. 1 College of Animal Science, Xinjiang Agricultural University, Urumqi 830052
    2 Altay Management Station, Mt. Kalamaili Ungulate Nature Reserve, Altay, Xinjiang 836500
    3 College of Resources and Environment Sciences, Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830046
  • Received:2014-08-27 Accepted:2014-12-04 Online:2014-11-20
  • Contact: Chu Hongjun E-mail:hongjunchu@vip.163.com

蒙古野驴(Equus hemionus)主要分布在亚洲中部的荒漠、半荒漠和荒漠草原地区, 是我国I级重点保护野生动物。因其奔跑速度快、警惕性高、分布区域偏僻, 迄今为止对其活动节律仅有半散养条件下昼间的研究。我们于2013年4-11月在新疆卡拉麦里山有蹄类自然保护区选取13处水源地, 布设28台红外相机, 对其在荒漠水源地的全天候活动节律进行了调查。结果表明: (1)蒙古野驴在春、夏、秋季的有效照片数量分别为294张、1,990张、2,679张, 其活动频率为秋季>夏季>春季。(2)蒙古野驴昼间集群平均数量大于夜间。(3)蒙古野驴在水源地具有稳定的日活动节律, 时间分配上呈典型的“U”型, 其活动在0:00-1:00达到高峰, 7:00-9:00间快速下降, 12:00-13:00和16:00-17:00是一天中的两个低谷, 在21:00-22:00间快速上升。研究水源地周围蒙古野驴的活动节律可为卡拉麦里山有蹄类自然保护区乃至新疆北部荒漠有蹄类的监测及有效保护管理提供依据, 并能对同域生存的普氏野马(Equus przewalskii)的野化工作起借鉴作用。

关键词: 蒙古野驴, 红外相机技术, 水源地, 活动节律

Khulan (Equus hemionus) are a first class, nationally protected animal in China. From April to November 2013, 28 infrared cameras were set up at 13 watering holes to study the activity rhythms of this species in the Mount Kalamaili Ungulate Nature Reserve, Xinjiang, China. The results showed that activity frequency was greatest in autumn (2,679 identification photos), then summer (1,990), and lowest in spring (294). Average aggregation of E. hemionus to watering holes was greater in daylight hours than at nights. Daily activity at watering holes peaked between 0:00-1:00, declined rapidly between 7:00-9:00, was lowest between 12:00-13:00 and 16:00-17:00 and rose rapidly between 21:00-22:00. Studying the activity of Equus hemionus around watering holes will provide a basis for effective protection and management of desert ungulates in northern Xinjiang. Additionally, it provides a baseline for the sympatric reintroduction of Equus przewalskii.

Key words: Kuhlan (Equus hemionus), camera trapping, watering holes, activity rhythms

图1

新疆卡拉麦里山有蹄类自然保护区水源地(红外相机布设位置)示意图"

图2

不同时段单张有效照片中蒙古野驴的平均数量"

图3

不同时段蒙古野驴有效照片数量"

附图1

蒙古野驴在新疆卡拉麦里山有蹄类自然保护区水源地活动的照片"

附表1

2013年4-11月不同时段拍摄的蒙古野驴有效照片数量"

1:00 2:00 3:00 4:00 5:00 6:00 7:00 8:00 9:00 10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00 17:00 18:00 19:00 20:00 21:00 22:00 23:00 24:00
4月
April
41 28 25 27 25 17 13 6 8 6 5 1 2 1 1 0 1 2 3 8 11 13 22 21
5月
May
1 1 0 1 2 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
6月
June
73 49 41 47 35 45 39 22 19 19 17 10 9 12 16 12 18 20 9 15 26 38 60 67
7月
July
29 35 33 30 37 41 22 21 24 24 15 15 8 9 14 6 16 14 19 8 20 27 38 40
8月
August
71 67 63 61 38 60 42 25 15 16 12 9 6 4 6 11 9 15 12 17 21 36 51 60
9月
September
117 86 92 106 87 83 73 58 36 21 19 26 10 13 13 12 8 20 11 19 18 30 80 74
10月
October
103 120 99 77 97 85 72 79 50 27 21 14 10 13 13 18 10 7 22 30 47 63 70 90
11月
November
25 32 21 31 17 19 10 6 11 6 5 1 4 4 6 1 0 8 15 18 18 24 21 27
总计
Account
460 418 374 380 338 351 271 217 164 119 94 76 49 56 69 60 62 86 91 115 161 231 342 379
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