生物多样性 ›› 2014, Vol. 22 ›› Issue (5): 589-595.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2014.14085

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中国脊椎动物红色名录指数评估

崔鹏1, 徐海根1, *(), 吴军1, 丁晖1, 曹铭昌1, 卢晓强1, 雍凡1, 2, 陈冰1, 2   

  1. 1 环境保护部南京环境科学研究所/国家环境保护生物安全重点实验室, 南京 210042
    2 南京师范大学生命科学学院, 南京 210046
  • 收稿日期:2014-04-18 接受日期:2014-09-15 出版日期:2014-09-20
  • 通讯作者: 徐海根 E-mail:xhg@nies.org
  • 基金项目:
    国家科技支撑计划(2012BAC01B01)和国家自然科学基金青年基金(31101651)

Assessing the Red List Index for vertebrate species in China

Peng Cui1, Haigen Xu1, *(), Jun Wu1, Hui Ding1, Mingchang Cao1, Xiaoqiang Lu1, Fan Yong1, 2, Bing Chen1, 2   

  1. 1 Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences, Ministry of Environmental Protection/ State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory on Biosafety, Ministry of Environmental Protection, Nanjing 210042
    2 College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210046
  • Received:2014-04-18 Accepted:2014-09-15 Online:2014-09-20
  • Contact: Xu Haigen E-mail:xhg@nies.org

红色名录指数(Red List Index, RLI)是评估物种濒危状况变化趋势的最有效指标, 已经被列为联合国千年发展目标的指标之一, 在全球尺度的应用取得了很好的效果。本研究基于多来源的中国脊椎动物濒危等级评估数据, 对兽类、鸟类、两栖类、爬行类和淡水鱼类的濒危状况变化趋势进行了评估。两栖类和爬行类由于在任意两个年度同时被评估的物种数量少, 不符合计算RLI的条件, 未进行指数计算。结果表明: 1996-2008年, 兽类的RLI下降; 1998-2004年, 淡水鱼类的RLI下降; 1988-2012年, 根据Equal-steps方法计算的鸟类RLI略有下降, 但根据Extinction-risk方法计算的RLI先略有上升又呈下降趋势, 总体呈下降趋势。总体看来, 3个类群的RLI变化幅度均较小, 兽类和淡水鱼类的受威胁程度在加剧; 鸟类整体上受威胁程度虽在加剧, 但部分高濒危物种的保护状况一定程度上得到改善。建议全面开展物种濒危状况评估工作, 并根据濒危等级变化制定有效的保护计划。

关键词: 脊椎动物, 濒危物种, 濒危状况, 兽类, 鸟类, 淡水鱼类

The Red List Index (RLI) is widely recognized as the most authoritative and objective index for assessing the risk of extinction for species. Good results have been achieved in the application of RLI in assessment of the progress of United Nation’s Millennium Development Goals at global scale. In this paper, RLI was applied at national scale based on multi-source data from International Union for Conservation of Nature, BirdLife International, Red List Categories in China Red Data Book (1998) and China Species Red List (2004) to evaluate trends in the status of vertebrate species in China. RLI of amphibians and reptiles were not assessed because of a lack of data. From 1996 to 2008, the RLI of China's mammals decreased, so did that of China's freshwater fishes from 1998 to 2004. The RLI of birds calculated using Equal-steps method decreased slightly between 1988 and 2012; however, when RLI was calculated using Extinction-risk method, the index initially increased slightly and then turned downward. Due to habitat degradation and loss, the threat status of mammals and freshwater fishes has been increasing. Overall, the threat status of birds is increasing though there were some improvements in the status of critically endangered species. We suggest that more taxonomic groups should be assessed using Red List guidelines so that calculation of RLI is possible. And on the basis of RLI, governments and decision makers should make more effective conservation plans for endangered species.

Key words: vertebrate, endangerment species, endangered status, mammals, birds, freshwater fishes

表1

中国濒危动物红皮书(1998)和中国物种红色名录(2004)物种濒危等级对应"

中国濒危动物红皮书(1998) China Red Data Book (1998) 中国物种红色名录(2004) China Species Red List (2004)
绝灭 Extinct (EX)
野生绝迹 Extinct in wild (EX) 野外绝灭 Extinct in Wild (EW)
国内绝迹 Extirpated (ET) 地区绝灭 Regionally Extinct (RE)
极危 Critically Endangered (CR)
濒危 Endangered (E) 濒危 Endangered (EN)
易危 Vulnerable (V) 易危 Vulnerable (VU)
稀有 Rare (R) 近危 Near Threatened (NT)
无危 Least Concern (LC)
未定 Indeterminate (I) 数据缺乏 Data Deficient (DD)
不宜评估 Not Applicable (NA)
未予评估 Not Evaluated (NE)

图1

濒危等级变化的物种数占总物种数的累计比例。(A)兽类; (B)鸟类; (C)淡水鱼类。黑色表示受胁物种增加, 白色表示受胁物种减少。"

表2

兽类、鸟类、淡水鱼类濒危等级的变化"

中文名
Chinese name
拉丁名
Latin name
评估起始年份
Start year of period
评估结束年份
End year of period
评估起始年份濒危等级
Category at start of period
评估结束年份濒危等级
Category at end of period
兽类
白头叶猴 Trachypithecus poliocephalus 1996 2008 EN CR
黑长臂猿 Nomascus concolor 1996 2008 EN CR
双峰驼 Camelus bactrianus 1996 2008 EN CR
林麝 Moschus berezovskii 1996 2008 NT EN
黑麝 Moschus fuscus 1996 2008 NT EN
Cuon alpinus 1996 2008 VU EN
蒙古野驴 Equus hemionus 1996 2008 VU EN
伊犁鼠兔 Ochotona iliensis 1996 2008 VU EN
藏羚羊 Pantholops hodgsonii 1996 2008 VU EN
川金丝猴 Rhinopithecus roxellana 1996 2008 VU EN
巨松鼠 Ratufa bicolor 1996 2008 LC NT
鸟类
青头潜鸭 Aythya baeri 1994 2000 VU EN
青头潜鸭 Aythya baeri 2004 2008 EN CR
朱鹮 Nipponia nippon 1994 2000 CR EN
黑脸琵鹭 Platalea minor 1994 2000 CR EN
栗头鳽 Gorsachius goisagi 1988 1994 VU EN
卷羽鹈鹕 Pelecanus crispus 2000 2004 NT VU
黄爪隼 Falco naumanni 1994 2000 VU NT
黄爪隼 Falco naumanni 2000 2004 NT LC
猎隼 Falco cherrug 2000 2004 LC VU
猎隼 Falco cherrug 2008 2012 VU EN
黑兀鹫 Sarcogyps calvus 2000 2004 NT CR
波斑鸨 Chlamydotis macqueenii 1994 2000 LC NT
波斑鸨 Chlamydotis macqueenii 2000 2004 NT VU
白头鹤 Grus monacha 1994 2000 NT VU
白腰杓鹬 Numenius arquata 1994 2000 LC NT
勺嘴鹬 Eurynorhynchus pygmeus 1994 2000 VU EN
勺嘴鹬 Eurynorhynchus pygmeus 2004 2008 EN CR
遗鸥 Larus relictus 1994 2000 NT VU
中亚鸽 Columba eversmanni 1988 1994 NT VU
栗斑腹鹀 Emberiza jankowskii 2000 2004 VU EN
黄胸鹀 Emberiza aureola 1994 2000 NT VU
淡水鱼类
施氏鲟 Acipenser schrencki 1998 2004 VU EN
达氏鲟 Acipenser dabryanus 1998 2004 VU EN
中华鲟 Acipenser sinensis 1998 2004 VU EN
Huso dauricus 1998 2004 VU EN
白鲟 Psephurus gladius 1998 2004 EN CR
黑线 Atrilinea roulei roulei 1998 2004 NT VU
须鳊 Pogobrama barbatula 1998 2004 NT VU
海南 Hainania serrata 1998 2004 NT VU
小似鲴 Xenocyprinoides parvulus 1998 2004 NT VU
裸腹盲鲃 Typhlobarbus nudiventris 1998 2004 NT VU
表2 (续) Table 2 (continued)
中文名
Chinese name
拉丁名
Latin name
评估起始年份
Start year of period
评估结束年份
End year of period
评估起始年份濒危等级
Category at start of period
评估结束年份濒危等级
Category at end of period
红鳍方口鲃 Cosmochilus cardinalis 1998 2004 NT VU
袋唇鱼 Balantiocheilus hekouensis 1998 2004 NT VU
暗色唇鲮 Semilabeo obscurus 1998 2004 NT VU
华缨鱼 Sinocrossocheilus guizhouensis 1998 2004 NT VU
缺须盆唇鱼 Placocheilus cryptonemus 1998 2004 NT VU
长须片唇鮈 Platysmacheilus longibarbatus 1998 2004 NT VU
塔里木裂腹鱼 Schizothorax biddulphi 1998 2004 EN CR
鲃鲤 Puntioplites proctozysron 1998 2004 NT VU
无眼岭鳅 Oreonectes anophthalmus 1998 2004 NT VU
个旧盲高原鳅 Triplophysa gejiuensis 1998 2004 NT VU
保亭近腹吸鳅 Plesiomyzon baotingensis 1998 2004 NT VU
厚唇原吸鳅 Protomyzon pachycheilus 1998 2004 NT VU
湄南缺鳍鲶 Kryptopterus moorei 1998 2004 NT VU
长丝鱼芒 Pangasius sanitwangsei 1998 2004 NT VU
长丝黑鮡 Gagata dolichonema 1998 2004 NT VU
短须粒鲶 Akysis brachybarbatus 1998 2004 NT VU
高体白甲鱼 Onychostoma alticorpus 1998 2004 NT VU

图2

中国脊椎动物(兽类、鸟类和淡水鱼类)红色名录指数。(A) Equal-steps方法; (B) Extinction-risk方法。"

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