生物多样性 ›› 2014, Vol. 22 ›› Issue (3): 385-391.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2014.13148

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中国南方喀斯特荔波世界自然遗产地翼手目物种多样性与保护现状

杨天友1, 2, 侯秀发2, 王应祥3, 周江2, , A;*()   

  1. 1 .铜仁学院生物与化学工程系, 贵州铜仁 554300
    2 .贵州师范大学生命科学学院, 贵阳 550001
    3 .中国科学院昆明动物研究所, 昆明 650223
  • 收稿日期:2013-11-25 接受日期:2014-05-08 出版日期:2014-05-20
  • 通讯作者: 周江 E-mail:prattihip2006@vip.sohu.com
  • 基金项目:
    联合国教科文组织与梅赛德斯—奔驰中国世界遗产地保护管理项目;贵州师范大学山海基金项目;贵州省自然科学基金(黔科合字[2012]2286号)和贵州省教育厅创新人才团队项目(黔教合人才团队字[2012]08号)

Bat species diversity and conservation in Libo World Natural Heritage Site of South China Karst

Tianyou Yang1, 2, Xiufa Hou2, Yingxiang Wang3, Jiang Zhou2, *()   

  1. 1. Department of Biological and Chemical Engineering, Tongren University, Tongren, Guizhou 554300
    2. School of Life Sciences, Guizhou Normal University, Guiyang 550001
    3. Kunming Institute of Zoology, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650223
  • Received:2013-11-25 Accepted:2014-05-08 Online:2014-05-20
  • Contact: Zhou Jiang E-mail:prattihip2006@vip.sohu.com

为了解荔波世界自然遗产地翼手目动物的物种多样性和生存现状, 作者于2010年10月至2011年10月, 对中国南方喀斯特荔波世界自然遗产地区域内6个镇(乡)69个洞穴的翼手目动物进行了考察, 发现60个洞穴有翼手目动物栖息痕迹, 其中可以确定具体栖息物种的洞穴有37个。本次调查观察记录到翼手目动物10万余只, 隶属5科15种, 结合文献记载及贵州师范大学动物标本室保存的翼手目动物标本, 确认该地区共有翼手目动物7科24种。11种翼手目动物在荔波世界自然遗产地为首次记录, 其中狭耳鼠耳蝠(Myotis blythii)、果树蹄蝠(Hipposideros pomona)2种为贵州省翼手目新记录。该地区一些洞穴已被开发为旅游景点, 严重影响了洞穴内翼手目动物的生存, 翼手目动物保护状况令人担忧, 建议对翼手目动物栖息的洞穴采取必要的保护措施。

关键词: 翼手类, 多样性, 荔波, 世界自然遗产地, 中国南方喀斯特

During field surveys between October, 2010 and October, 2011, we investigated bat species diversity in 69 caves in 6 townships in the Libo World Natural Heritage Site located in the South China Karst region. We also investigated bat specimens from the zoological museum of the School of Life Sciences, Guizhou Normal University, and reviewed pertinent literature as well. We uncovered 7 families encompassing 24 bat species in the area, including 2 new records of species for Guizhou Province, i.e., Myotis blythii and Hipposideros pomona, and 11 species first documented in Libo. Unfortunately, many caves have been exploited for tourism, thereby posing a great threat to the survival of cave-dwelling bats. We propose some special strategies that could be taken to protect the bats roosting in these caves.

Key words: Chiroptera, species diversity, Libo, World Natural Heritage Site, South China Karst

图1

中国南方喀斯特荔波世界自然遗产地确定有蝙蝠栖息的37个洞穴分布图"

表1

中国南方喀斯特荔波世界自然遗产地翼手目名录"

科别
Family
种名
Species
观察数量Number observed 标本采集
Specimen captured
标本记录*
Specimen examined
文献记录
Literature
record
分布洞穴***
Cave
distributed
分布型
Distribution
pattern
濒危等级**
Endangered
category
狐蝠科
Pteropodidae
棕果蝠
Rousettus leschenaultii
- - Wb LC
假吸血蝠科
Megadermatidae
印度假吸血蝠
Megaderma lyra
43 6, 31 Wc VU
菊头蝠科
Rhinolophidae
菲菊头蝠
Rhinolophus pusillus
3 12 Sc NT
皮氏菊头蝠 R. pearsonii 5 18, 19 Wd LC
中华菊头蝠 R. sinicus 25 14, 21, 24, 27, 28 Wd NT
托氏菊头蝠 R. thomasi 5 12 Wb VU
云南菊头蝠
R. yunanensis
19 8, 16, 17, 20,
21, 22, 32
Hc EN
贵州菊头蝠 R. rex - - Ya EN
蹄蝠科
Hipposideridae
大蹄蝠
Hipposideros armiger
456 3, 5, 9, 10, 12, 25, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 36, 37 Wd LC
中蹄蝠 H. larvatus 1,054 1, 2, 23, 30, 34, 35 Wb VU
果树蹄蝠 H. pomona 52 11, 33 Wc NT
普氏蹄蝠 H. pratti - - Wd NT
三叶蹄蝠
Aselliscus stoliczkanus
219 1, 2, 7, 15, 19 Sc NT
蝙蝠科Vespertilionidae 南蝠 Ia io 1 2 Si NT
西南鼠耳蝠
Myotis altarium
- - Si NT
狭耳鼠耳蝠 M. blythii 25 13, 30 Ow VU
中华鼠耳蝠 M. chinensis 3 2, 26 Sc VU
华南水鼠耳蝠 M. laniger 5 34, 36 Sc LC
普通伏翼
Pipistrellus pipistrellus
- - Ow LC
印度伏翼
P. coromandra
- - Wc NT
东亚伏翼 P. abramus 1 - Ea LC
水普管鼻蝠
Murina shuipuensis
- - Ya -
艾氏管鼻蝠 M. eleryi - - Ya -
犬吻蝠科Molossidae 皱唇蝠
Chaerephon plicata
>10万 4 Wc VU
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