生物多样性 ›› 2013, Vol. 21 ›› Issue (3): 288-295.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2013.08258

• • 上一篇    下一篇

天目山保护区森林群落植物多样性对毛竹入侵的响应及动态变化

白尚斌1, 周国模2, *, 王懿祥2, 梁倩倩1, 陈娟1, 程艳艳1, 沈蕊1   

  1. 1 浙江农林大学林业与生物技术学院, 浙江临安 311300
    2 浙江农林大学环境与资源学院, 浙江临安 311300
  • 收稿日期:2012-12-29 接受日期:2013-04-20 出版日期:2013-05-20
  • 通讯作者: 周国模
  • 基金项目:
    国家自然科学基金(31170594);浙江农林大学科研发展基金(2009FR060);浙江省林业科技计划项目(05A14);临安市科技发展计划项目(05067)

Plant species diversity and dynamics in forests invaded by Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) in Tianmu Mountain Nature Reserve

Shangbin Bai1, Guomo Zhou2, *, Yixiang Wang2, Qianqian Liang1, Juan Chen1, Yanyan Cheng1, Rui Shen1   

  1. 1 School of Forestry & Bio-technology, Zhejiang A & F University, Lin’an, Zhejiang 311300
    2 School of Environmental & Resource Sciences, Zhejiang A & F University, Lin’an, Zhejiang 311300
  • Received:2012-12-29 Accepted:2013-04-20 Online:2013-05-20
  • Contact: Zhou Guomo

为探讨毛竹(Phyllostachys edulis)入侵对周围森林群落的影响, 作者于2005-2011年在天目山自然保护区进行了7年长期定位观测实验, 研究了毛竹入侵地森林群落的植物物种多样性变化。结果表明: 毛竹入侵对周围森林群落植物物种多样性产生了不利影响: 毛竹林乔木层和灌木层植物的Simpson指数小于针阔混交林和毛竹-针阔混交林, 而草本层的Simpson指数则大于针阔混交林和毛竹-针阔混交林。植物物种丰富度、Simpson指数和Pielou均匀度指数随时间发生了较大变化: 毛竹入侵的森林群落其乔木层和灌木层的物种丰富度、Simpson指数和Pielou均匀度指数显著降低(P<0.05), 草本层的物种丰富度显著提高(P<0.05), Simpson指数和Pielou均匀度指数未表现出明显的变化。毛竹-针阔混交林去除毛竹后, 乔木层和灌木层物种丰富度和Simpson指数增加, 草本层物种丰富度、Simpson指数和Pielou均匀度指数明显下降。可见, 毛竹入侵使森林群落植物多样性发生实质性的变化, 对自然保护区植物群落造成了重大影响。由此可见, 要使保护区物种多样性得到保护, 除进行科学的管理外, 还需要控制毛竹蔓延。

关键词: Phyllostachys edulis, 生物入侵, 植物多样性, 动态变化, 自然保护区

Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) is an economically important plant, widely cultivated not only for its delicious shoots and versatile culms, but also as an important biomass resource in southern China. However, with its robust growth and strong rhizomes, it has recently been shown to be a problem tree, capable of dominating some forest stands. Indeed, it may displace species within the community it invades with considerable potential impacts. However, little is known about the consequences of its invasion on plant community composition. We compared plant biodiversity change in different communities where we monitored and removed bamboo over a seven years period (2005 to 2011) in Tianmu Mountain Nature Reserve, so as to elucidate the impacts of Moso bamboo invasion. The results showed that Moso bamboo invasion had negative effects on plant communities. Simpson’s Diversity Index in tree and shrub layers of bamboo forest was lower than that of forests consisting of needle and broad-leaved species, and also those containing a mixture of bamboo with needle and broad-leaved plants. However, Simpson’s Diversity Index in the herb layer of bamboo forest was higher than that in the two other forest types. Plant species richness, Simpson’s Diversity Index, and Pielou’s Eveness Index varied greatly among the different forest types over time. In the tree and shrub layers of forests containing bamboo growing with both needle and broad-leaved species, these three indices declined significantly over the monitoring period (P<0.05). In contrast, no significant changes of Simpson’s Diversity Index and Pielou’s Eveness Index were exhibited in either forests containing a mixture of needle and broad-leaved plants or in pure bamboo forest (P>0.05). Plant species richness increased in the herb layer of forests containing bamboo mixed with needle and broad-leaved species, while Simpson’s Diversity Index and Pielou’s Eveness Index did not change greatly over time. The removal of Moso bamboo resulted in an increase in plant species richness and Simpson’s Diversity Index in the tree and shrub layers. In contrast, plant species richness, Simpson’s Diversity Index, and Pielou’s Eveness Index decreased significantly in the herb layer. In summary, in the Tianmu Mountain Nature Reserve, Moso bamboo invasion was found to cause substantial changes in plant species diversity and had strong negative effects on plant communities. These results suggest that, in addition to scientific management, removal of Moso bamboo may be required to restore plant species diversity in these communities.

Key words: Phyllostachys edulis, biological invasions, plant diversity, dynamic changes, nature reserve

图1

本研究的样带、样地、样方示意图"

表1

不同样地各年份毛竹立竹度变化(2005-2011)"

时间
Time
针阔混交林
Mixed conifer-broad-
leaved forest
毛竹-针阔混交林
Mixed bamboo and conifer-broad- leaved forest
毛竹林
Bamboo forest
竹针阔混交林去除毛竹
Removed bamboo from mixed bamboo and conifer-broad-leaved forest
2005 0 400.0±34.2 4,233.3±94.3 1,300.0±107.5
2006 0 558.3±47.6 4,200.0±117.6 0
2007 0 633.3±59.8 4,391.6±89.3 0
2008 0 866.7±76.8 3,983.3±101.0 0
2009 0 1,033.3±108.4 4,075.0±110.2 0
2010 41.7±3.5 1,516.7±137.1 4,300.0±104.3 0
2011 100.0±8.7 1,775.0±145.2 4,491.7±82.5 0

图2

不同群落乔、灌、草层物种丰富度相对变化(Ln(2011/ 2005))。"

图3

不同群落乔、灌、草层Simpson指数的变化。"

图4

不同群落乔、灌、草层Pielou均匀度指数的变化。"

1 Bai SB (白尚斌), Zhou GM (周国模), Wang YX (王懿祥), Yu SQ (余树全), Li YH (李艳华), Fang FY (方飞燕) (2012) Stand structure change of Phyllostachys pubescens forest expansion in Tianmushan National Nature Reserve.Journal of West China Forestry Science(西部林业科学), 41(1), 77-81. (in Chinese with English abstract)
2 Cai L (蔡亮), Zhang RL (张瑞霖), Li CF (李春福), Ding Y (丁滪) (2003) A method to inhibit the expansion of Phyllo- stachys pubescens stand based on the analysis of underground rhizome.Journal of Northeast Forestry University(东北林业大学学报), 31(5), 68-70. (in Chinese with English abstract)
3 Cronk QCB, Fuller JL (1995) Plant Invaders: The Threat to Natural Ecosystem, p. 233. Chapman & Hall, London.
4 Cushman JH, Gaffney KA (2010) Community-level consequence of invasion: impacts of exotic clonal plants on riparian vegetation.Biological Invasions, 12, 2765-2776.
5 Ding LX (丁丽霞), Wang ZL (王祖良), Zhou GM (周国模), Du QZ (杜晴洲) (2006) Monitoring Phyllostachys pubescens stands expansion in National Nature Reserve of Mount Tianmu by remote sensing.Journal of Zhejiang Forestry College(浙江林学院学报), 23, 297-300. (in Chinese with English abstract)
6 Dong M (董鸣) (1996) Plant clonal growth in heterogeneous habitats: risk-spreading.Acta Phytoecologica Sinica(植物生态学报), 20, 543-548. (in Chinese with English abstract)
7 Fang FY (方飞燕), Bai SB (白尚斌), Zhou GM (周国模), Wang YX (王懿祥), Xie YM (谢一鸣) (2012) Effects of shading on growth of Phyllostachys pubescens.Journal of Northeast Forestry University(东北林业大学学报), 40(3), 11-13, 27. (in Chinese with English abstract)
8 Flory SL, Clay K (2009) Invasive plant removal method determines native plant community responses.Journal of Applied Ecology, 46, 434-442.
9 Flory SL, Clay K (2010) Non-native grass invasion alters native plant composition in experimental communities.Biological Invasions, 12, 1285-1294.
10 Hong W (洪伟), Hu XS (胡喜生), Wu CZ (吴承祯), Yan SJ (闫淑君), Feng L (封磊), Lin YM (林勇明) (2004) Comparison study on community structure features of the mixed forest of Phyllostachys pubescens in Fujian Province.Journal of Plant Resources and Environment(植物资源与环境学报), 13(1), 37-42. (in Chinese with English abstract)
11 Hulme PE, Bremner ET (2006) Assessing the impact of Impatiens glandulifera on riparian habitats: partitioning diversity components following species removal. Journal of Applied Ecology, 43, 43-50.
12 Isagi Y, Torii A (1998) Range expansion and its mechanisms in a naturalized bamboo species, Phyllostachys pubescens, in Japan.Journal of Sustainable Forestry, 6, 127-141.
13 Ito T (2006) Breeding characteristic, invasion prevention method, and its dissemination of Phyllostachys pubescens woods.Shinrin Gijyutsu, 772, 36-37.
14 Leps J (2004) Variability in population and community biomass in a grassland community affected by environmental productivity and diversity. Oikos, 107, 64-71.
15 Liu S (刘烁), Zhou GM (周国模), Bai SB (白尚斌) (2011) Light intensity changes on Cunninghamia lanceolata in mixed stands with different concentrations of Phyllostachys pubescens.Journal of Zhejiang A & F University(浙江农林大学学报), 28, 550-554. (in Chinese with English abstract)
16 Mack RN, Simberloff D, Lonsdale WM, Evans H, Clout M, Bazzaz FA (2000) Biotic invasions: causes, epidemiology, global consequences, and control.Ecological Applications, 10, 689-710.
17 Mclean MA, Parkinson D (1997) Changes in structure, organic matter and microbial activity in pine forest soil following the introduction of Dendrobaena oetaedra (Oligocbaeta: Lumbricidae).Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 29, 537-540.
18 Meghann EJ, Bradley JC (2009) Allelopathy as a mechanism for the invasion of Typha angustifolia.Plant Ecology, 204, 113-124.
19 Nakatsubo T, Suzuki T (1998) Ecological studies on the vegetation and management of the Yahagi River. I. The impact of bamboo cutting on the vegetation in Otsuridoba area.Report of Yahagi River Institute(矢作川研究), 2, 113-127. (in Japanese with English abstract)
20 Okutomi K, Shinoda S, Fukuda H (1996) Causal analysis of the invasion of broad-leaved forest by bamboo in Japan.Journal of Vegetation Science, 7, 723-728.
21 Pattison RR, Goldstein G, Ares A (1998) Growth, biomass allocation and photosynthesis of invasive and native Hawaiian rain-forest species.Oecologia, 117, 449-459.
22 Peng SL (彭少麟), Xiang YC (向言词) (1999) The invasion of exotic plants and effects of ecosystems.Acta Ecologica Sinica(生态学报), 19, 560-568. (in Chinese with English abstract)
23 Pennings SC, Callaway RM (2000) The advantages of clonal integration under different ecological conditions: a community-wide test.Ecology, 81, 709-716.
24 Ramula S, Pihlaja K (2012) Plant communities and the reproductive success of native plants after the invasion of an ornamental herb.Biological Invasions, 14, 2079-2090.
25 Ruiz-Pérez M, Fu M, Yang X, Belcher B (2001) Bamboo forestry in China: toward environmentally friendly expansion.Journal of Forestry, 99, 14-20.
26 Scott JM, Mary LC (2005) The relationship between community diversity and exotic plants: cause or consequence of invasion? In: Invasive Plants: Ecological and Agricultural Aspects (ed. Inderjit), pp. 97-100. Birkhäuser Verlag, Switzerland.
27 Smith MD, Knapp AK (1999) Exotic plant species in a C4-dominated grassland: invisibility, disturbance, and community structure.Oecologia, 120, 605-612.
28 Suzuki S, Nakagoshi N (2008) Expansion of bamboo forests caused by reduced bamboo-shoot harvest under different natural and artificial conditions.Ecological Research, 23, 641-647.
29 Suzuki T, Nakatsubo T (2001) Impact of the bamboo Phyuostaehys bambusoides on the light environment and plant communities on riverbanks.Journal of Forest Research, 6, 81-86.
30 van Kleuene M, Weber E, Fischer M (2010) A meta-analysis of trait differences between invasive and non-invasive plant species.Ecology Letters, 13, 235-245.
31 Vilà M, Espinar JL, Hejda M, Hulme PE, Jarošík V, Maron JL, Pergl J, Schaffner U, Sun Y, Pyšek P (2011) Ecological impacts of invasive alien plants: a meta-analysis of their effects on species, communities and ecosystems. Ecology Letters, 14, 702-708.
32 Wang CP, Stapleton C (2006) Phyllostackys. In: Flora of China (eds Wu CY, Raven PH), Vol. 22, pp. 163-180. Science Press, Beijing, Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
33 Yang H (杨怀), Li PX (李培学), Dai HT (戴慧堂), Liu D (刘丹), Yao XS (姚贤胜) (2010) Effects of Phyllostachys pubescens expansion on plant species diversity in Jigong Mountain and discussion of control measures. Journal of Xinyang Normal University (Natural Science Edition) (信阳师范学院学报(自然科学版)), 4, 553-557. (in Chinese with English abstract)
34 Zhang GH (张刚华), Xiao JH (萧江华), Nie JZ (聂洁珠), Chen SL (陈双林), Guo ZW (郭子武) (2007) Study on the species diversity at Moso bamboo stands of different types.Forest Research(林业科学研究), 20, 615-621. (in Chinese with English abstract)
35 Zhang JT (张金屯) (2011) Quantitative Ecology (数量生态学), pp. 83-107. Science Press, Beijing. (in Chinese)
36 Zhou GM, Jiang PK, Mo LF (2009) Bamboo: a possible approach to the control of global warming.International Journal of Nonlinear Sciences & Numerical Simulation, 10, 547-550.
37 Zhu CL (朱长龙), Shangguan LP (上官林平) (2009) Preliminary study on the influence of the expansion edge on biodiversity of moso bamboo forest in Jinggang Mountain.Territory & Natural Resources Study(国土与自然资源研究), (3), 45-46. (in Chinese with English abstract)
38 Zhu JM (朱锦懋), Huang MT (黄茂提), Chen YQ (陈由强), Huang RZ (黄儒珠), Li XQ (李晓青) (2000) The structure of a culm and shoot producing stand of Phyllostachys pubescens.Acta Phytoecologica Sinica(植物生态学报), 24, 483-488. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[1] 张明明,杨朝辉,王丞,王娇娇,胡灿实,雷孝平,石磊,粟海军,李佳琦. (2019) 贵州梵净山国家级自然保护区鸟兽红外相机监测. 生物多样性, 27(7): 813-818.
[2] 许光耀, 李洪远, 莫训强, 孟伟庆. (2019) 中国归化植物组成特征及其时空分布格局分析. 植物生态学报, 43(7): 601-610.
[3] 穆君, 王娇娇, 张雷, 李云波, 李筑眉, 粟海军. (2019) 贵州习水国家级自然保护区红外相机鸟兽监测及活动节律分析. 生物多样性, 27(6): 683-688.
[4] 王渊, 李晟, 刘务林, 朱雪林, 李炳章. (2019) 西藏雅鲁藏布大峡谷国家级自然保护区金猫的色型类别与活动节律. 生物多样性, 27(6): 638-647.
[5] 李晗溪, 黄雪娜, 李世国, 战爱斌. (2019) 基于环境DNA-宏条形码技术的水生生态系统入侵生物的早期监测与预警. 生物多样性, 27(5): 491-504.
[6] 余文生, 郭耀霖, 江佳佳, 孙可可, 鞠瑞亭. (2019) 土著昆虫素毒蛾在本地植物芦苇与入侵植物互花米草上的生活史. 生物多样性, 27(4): 433-438.
[7] 李强, 王彬, 邓云, 林露湘, 达佤扎喜, 张志明. (2019) 西双版纳热带雨林林窗空间分布格局及其特征数与林窗下植物多样性的相关性. 生物多样性, 27(3): 273-285.
[8] 肖治术,陈立军,宋相金,束祖飞,肖荣高,黄小群. (2019) 基于红外相机技术对广东车八岭国家级自然保护区大中型兽类与雉类的编目清查与评估. 生物多样性, 27(3): 237-242.
[9] 陈立军,束祖飞,肖治术. (2019) 应用红外相机数据研究动物活动节律——以广东车八岭保护区鸡形目鸟类为例. 生物多样性, 27(3): 266-272.
[10] 陈强强, 李美玲, 王旭, FaisalMueenQamer, 王鹏, 杨建伟, 汪沐阳, 杨维康. (2019) 新疆塔什库尔干野生动物自然保护区马可波罗盘羊潜在生态廊道识别. 生物多样性, 27(2): 186-199.
[11] 姬红利, 詹选怀, 张丽, 彭焱松, 周赛霞, 胡菀. (2019) 幕阜山脉石松类和蕨类植物多样性及生物地理学特征. 生物多样性, 27(11): 1251-1259.
[12] 陈惠君, 杜虎, 宋同清, 彭晚霞, 张浩, 苏樑, 曾馥平. (2019) 木论喀斯特常绿落叶阔叶混交林群丛数量分类及稳定性. 生物多样性, 27(10): 1056-1068.
[13] 邹东廷, 王庆刚, 罗奥, 王志恒. (2019) 中国蔷薇科植物多样性格局及其资源植物保护现状. 植物生态学报, 43(1): 1-15.
[14] 张宇, 冯刚. (2018) 内蒙古昆虫物种多样性分布格局及其机制. 生物多样性, 26(7): 701-706.
[15] 张则瑾, 郭焱培, 贺金生, 唐志尧. (2018) 中国极小种群野生植物的保护现状评估. 生物多样性, 26(6): 572-577.
Viewed
Full text


Abstract

Cited

  Shared   
  Discussed