生物多样性 ›› 2013, Vol. 21 ›› Issue (6): 658-665.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2013.08048

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中国国家级陆地自然保护区分布及其与人类活动和自然环境的关系

赵广华1, 2, 田瑜3, 唐志尧1, *(), 李俊生3, 曾辉1, 2   

  1. 1 北京大学城市与环境学院生态学系, 地表过程与模拟教育部重点实验室, 北京 100871
    2 北京大学深圳研究生院城市人居环境科学与技术重点实验室, 深圳 518055
    3 中国环境科学研究院, 北京 100012
  • 收稿日期:2013-02-24 接受日期:2013-06-13 出版日期:2013-11-20
  • 通讯作者: 唐志尧 E-mail:zytang@urban.pku.edu.cn
  • 基金项目:
    国家自然科学基金(31170499, 31021001);环保公益性行业科研专项(201209028)

Distribution of terrestrial national nature reserves in relation to human activities and natural environments in China

Guanghua Zhao1, 2, Yu Tian3, Zhiyao Tang1, *(), Junsheng Li3, Hui Zeng1, 2   

  1. 1 Department of Ecology, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, and Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes of Ministry of Education, Peking University, Beijing 100871
    2 The Key Laboratory for Environmental and Urban Sciences, Shenzhen Graduate School, Peking University, Shenzhen, Guangdong 518055
    3 Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012
  • Received:2013-02-24 Accepted:2013-06-13 Online:2013-11-20
  • Contact: Tang Zhiyao E-mail:zytang@urban.pku.edu.cn

截至2011年底, 中国共建立了2,640个自然保护区, 覆盖了约15%的国土面积, 其中包括318个国家级陆地自然保护区, 但目前缺乏对中国陆地自然保护区分布与自然环境及社会经济状况关系的研究。作者利用地理信息系统手段分析了中国现有国家级陆地自然保护区的分布格局及其与人类活动强度和自然环境的关系。结果表明: 中国国家级陆地自然保护区在县级水平上覆盖不平衡, 共有2,150个县级行政区(占总数的91%)的覆盖率小于10%, 其中150个(6%)覆盖率<1%, 1,726个(73%)无保护区。自然保护区覆盖率在高海拔、低温干燥以及植被生产力较低的区域较大, 而在低海拔、高温潮湿以及植被生产力较高的区域较低; 在人为活动较弱的地区较大, 而在人为活动较强的地区较低。中国现有陆地自然保护区大部分设置在人类活动较少的高寒山区或干旱区, 而在人类活动强度大的低海拔、高生产力地区保护区覆盖率过低; 自然保护区的这种设置模式有利于增加中国自然保护区的覆盖率, 然而在人为活动并不强烈的地区设立保护区的紧迫性也不如自然条件优越的地区。因此, 在目前中国自然保护区覆盖面积已经接近15%的背景下, 新增自然保护区的设置方案需要进一步优化。

关键词: 生物多样性保护, 自然保护区, 地理分布

To protect its huge biodiversity, China has established 2,640 nature reserves, including 318 terrestrial national nature reserves, covering ~15% of its landmass. It is necessary to characterize the geographical distribution of these nature reserves along natural and socio-economic gradients before evaluating their effectiveness in conserving China’s biodiversity. We did this using geographic information system (GIS) analysis. The results show that, the coverage of nature reserves is unbalanced across China. In total, there are 2,150 counties (91% of the total) with <10% coverage of nature reserves, of which 150 have <6% coverage and 1,726 (73%) have no nature reserves at all. A higher coverage of nature reserves tends to occur in regions of higher elevation, lower temperature, less precipitation, and less vegetation productivity. Nature reserves tend to be established therefore at high and cold locations in poor remote areas where human activities (including farming) are greatly reduced. In contrast, in warm humid and productive areas for farming and horticulture, nature reserve coverage is relatively low.

Key words: biodiversity conservation, nature reserves, geographical distribution

图1

中国国家级陆地自然保护区的分布"

图2

中国各县域国家级自然保护区覆盖率分布"

图3

中国不同人口密度(a), 耕地比例(b)以及人均GDP(c)县域平均国家级自然保护区覆盖率"

图4

中国国家级自然保护区面积(a)及覆盖率(b)沿海拔的变化趋势"

图5

中国国家级自然保护区面积(a)及覆盖率(b)沿年均温的变化趋势"

图6

中国国家级自然保护区分布面积(a)及覆盖率(b)沿年降水的变化趋势"

图7

中国国家级自然保护区面积(a)及覆盖率(b)沿植被指数(MODIS-EVI)的变化趋势"

图8

中国国家级自然保护区面积(a)及覆盖率(b)沿植被净初级生产力(MODIS-NPP)的变化趋势"

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