生物多样性 ›› 2013, Vol. 21 ›› Issue (4): 507-513.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2013.07028

所属专题: 微生物多样性专辑

• • 上一篇    下一篇

华东丘陵林地黏菌的物种多样性

戴群, 闫淑珍, 姚慧琴, 陈双林*()   

  1. 南京师范大学生命科学学院, 南京 210023
  • 收稿日期:2013-01-30 接受日期:2013-06-13 出版日期:2013-07-20
  • 通讯作者: 陈双林 E-mail:chenshuanglin@njnu.edu.cn
  • 基金项目:
    江苏省高校自然科学研究重大项目(12KJA180004);国家自然科学基金(31770014)

Myxomycete diversity in hilly forests of East China

Qun Dai, Shuzhen Yan, Huiqin Yao, Shuanglin Chen*()   

  1. College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023
  • Received:2013-01-30 Accepted:2013-06-13 Online:2013-07-20
  • Contact: Chen Shuanglin E-mail:chenshuanglin@njnu.edu.cn

为了探讨黏菌在华东丘陵地带森林中的生态作用, 本文选择安徽滁州皇甫山和江苏南京紫金山两个国家森林公园作为华东地区丘陵林地的代表, 分别设置针叶林和阔叶林样地各3个, 调查研究了其中的黏菌物种多样性。共获得5目10科21属58种黏菌, 其中从皇甫山获得5目9科17属41种黏菌, 点状无丝菌(Licea punctiformis)、细筛菌(Cribraria tenella)和盖碗菌(Perichaena corticalis)等27种为安徽省首次发现; 从紫金山获得5目10科20属51种黏菌, 粗柄无丝菌(Licea pedicellata)、密筛菌(Cribraria intricata)和纹丝菌(Calomyxa metallica)等35种为江苏省首次发现。碎皮菌(Clastoderma debaryanum)和灰团网菌(Arcyria cinerea)是两地共有的相对多度最高的物种, 相对多度分别为32.72%、30.59%和21.27%、26.30%。无丝菌目和发网菌目更多地在针叶林中发生, 而团毛菌目和绒泡菌目更多地在阔叶林中发生, 且阔叶林中黏菌的物种数量和多样性指数都高于针叶林。两地阔叶林之间黏菌物种组成的相似性为68.57%, 针叶林之间的相似性为59.57%, 均高于两地阔叶林和针叶林之间的相似性, 表明林型对黏菌物种组成的影响大于距离的影响。

关键词: 黏菌, 亚热带, 森林类型, 物种组成, 相对多度

We explored myxomycete species diversity in woodlands on Huangfu Mountain in Chuzhou of Anhui Province, Zijin Mountain in Nanjing of Jiangsu Province, representing the hilly forest ecosystems of East China. Three sample plots of coniferous forest and broad-leaved forests were examined on each mountain. The results showed that a total of 58 myxomycete species belonging to 21 genera of 10 families in 5 orders were found. 41 species belonging to 17 genera of 9 families in 5 orders present on Huangfu Mountain, 27 species including Licea punctiformis, Cribraria tenella and Perichaena corticalis were newly recorded species for Anhui, and 51 species belonging to 20 genera of 10 families in 5 orders occurred on Zijin Mountain, 35 species including Licea pedicellata, Cribraria intricata and Calomyxa metallica were newly recorded species for Jiangsu. The species Clastoderma debaryanum and Arcyria cinerea were the most common species on both mountains with relative abundances of 32.72% vs. 30.59% and 21.27% vs. 26.30%, respectively. It was also evident that Liceales and Stemonitales were more frequent in coniferous forests, while Trichiales and Physarales were more frequent in broad-leaved forests. Both species diversity index and numbers of species of myxomycetes were more higher in broad-leaved forests than in coniferous forests. Interestingly, the similarity of myxomycete species compositions between the two mountains was 68.57% for broad-leaved forests and 59.57% for coniferous forests and both of these values were higher than those based on comparisons between broad-leaved and coniferous forests within each mountain system. Thus, forest type has a greater effect on species composition of myxomycetes than distance between mountains.

Key words: myxomycetes, subtropics, forest type, species composition, relative abundance

表1

皇甫山和紫金山不同林型中的黏菌物种组成"


Order

Family

Genus

Species
物种的相对多度 Relative abundance of species (%)
安徽滁州皇甫山
Huangfu Mountain, Anhui
江苏南京紫金山
Zijin Mountain, Jiangsu
针叶林
Coniferous forest
阔叶林
Broad-leaved forest
合计
Total
针叶林
Coniferous forest
阔叶林
Broad-leaved forest
合计
Total
刺轴菌目
Echinosteliales
刺轴菌科
Echinosteliaceae
刺轴菌属
Echinostelium
刺轴菌 E. minutum1,2 0.65 0.32 0.97 1.01 0.26 1.27
碎皮菌科
Clastodermaceae
碎皮菌属
Clastoderma
碎皮菌 C. debaryanum1,2 17.83 14.89 32.72 18.47 12.12 30.59
无丝菌目
Liceales
无丝菌科 无丝菌属 纵裂无丝菌 L. biforis1,2 0.21 0.21 0.31 0.31
Liceaceae Licea 柄罐无丝菌 L. operculata1,2 0.17 0.17 0.08 0.08
粗柄无丝菌 L. pedicellata2 0.31 0.31
点状无丝菌 L. punctiformis1 0.23 0.07 0.30
筛菌科 筛菌属 混淆筛菌 C. confusa1, 2 0.26 0.26 0.39 0.39
Cribrariaceae Cribraria 密筛菌 C. intricata2 0.06 0.06
极小筛菌 C. minutissima2 7.16 0.15 7.31 1.22 0.52 1.74
暗小筛菌 C. oregana1 0.18 0.18
梨形筛菌 C. piriformis1,2 0.21 0.21 0.04 0.04
细筛菌 C. tenella1 0.12 0.12
栗褐筛菌 C. vulgaris2 0.07 0.07
紫筛菌 C. violacea1 0.06 0.06
灯笼菌属
Dictydium
灯笼菌 D. cancellatum 0.23 0.23
团毛菌目
Trichiales
散丝菌科
Dianemaceae
纹丝菌属
Calomyxa
纹丝菌 C. metallica2 0.87 0.87
团网菌科 盖碗菌属 金孢盖碗菌 P. chrysosperma1,2 0.14 0.14 0.41 0.41
Arcyriaceae Perichaena 盖碗菌 P. corticalis1 0.06 0.06
扁盖碗菌 P. depressa2 0.11 0.11
小盖碗菌 P. minor2 0.52 0.52
团网菌属 灰团网菌 A. cinerea 7.54 13.73 21.27 5.12 21.18 26.30
Arcyria 暗红团网菌 A. denudata2 0.14 0.14
球圆团网菌 A. globosa2 0.29 0.29 0.08 0.08
果形团网菌 A. pomiformis 1.19 1.19 1.04 1.04
团毛菌科 半网菌属 棒形半网菌 H. clavata2 0.23 0.85 1.08 0.73 0.73
Trichiaceae Hemitrichia 蛇形半网菌 H. serpula 0.03 0.03
团毛菌属
Trichia
刺丝团毛菌 T. scabra1,2 1.01 1.01 0.36 0.36
绒泡菌目
Physarales
绒泡菌科
Physaraceae
钙丝菌属
Badhamia
黑柄钙丝菌 B. affinis 0.51 0.51
细钙丝菌 B. gracilis1,2 0.56 0.56 0.16 0.16
高杯菌属
Craterium
高杯菌 C. minutum2 0.48 0.73 1.21
绒泡菌属
Physarum
橙绿绒泡菌 P. auriscalpium1,2 0.11 0.56 0.63 0.09 0.09
扁绒泡菌 P. compressum1 0.21 0.61 0.82 0.51 0.51
高杯绒泡菌 P. crateriforme2 0.17 0.17
全白绒泡菌 P. globuliferum2 0.18 0.18 0.26 0.26
淡黄绒泡菌 P. melleum 0.91 0.91 0.28 1.02 1.30
盘头菌 P. pezizoidea1,2 0.33 0.33 0.31 0.31
小绒泡菌 P. pusillum1,2 0.24 0.24 0.40 0.40
绿绒泡菌 P. viride2 0.62 0.62
钙皮菌科 双皮菌属 扁垫双皮菌 D. deplanatum1,2 0.08 0.08 0.02 0.02
Didymiaceae Diderma 垫形双皮菌 D. effusum2 0.07 0.07
钙皮菌属 钉形钙皮菌 D. clavus1 0.08 0.56 0.64 0.41 0.41
Didymium 畸形钙皮菌 D. difforme1, 2 0.21 0.21 0.06 0.06
黄柄钙皮菌 D. iridis 0.38 0.38 0.49 0.49
小钙皮菌 D. minus 0.54 0.54 0.21 0.87 1.08
黑柄钙皮菌 D. nigripes 0.17 1.02 1.19 0.26 0.84 1.10
卵形钙皮菌 D. ovoideum2 0.03 0.03
鳞钙皮菌 D. squamulosum 0.15 5.16 5.31 3.16 3.16
发网菌目
Stemonitales
发网菌科
Stemonitaceae
颈环菌属
Collaria
弧线颈环菌 C. arcyrionema2 1.05 1.05
圆头颈环菌 C. elegans2 12.47 1.21 13.68 5.76 0.56 6.32
紫褐颈环菌 C. lurida1 0.71 0.71 0.06 0.06
发菌属 黑发菌 C. nigra1 3.20 1.04 3.24 9.87 0.83 10.70
Comatricha 松发菌 C. laxa 1.26 1.26 2.14 2.14
垂丝菌属
Enerthenema
垂丝菌 E. papillatum2 0.69 0.69
亮皮菌属
Lamproderma
闪光亮皮菌 L. scintillans1 0.32 0.32 0.04 0.04
叉丝菌属 刺孢叉丝菌 P. acanthodes1,2 0.34 0.27 0.61 0.56 0.56
Paradiacheopsis 流苏叉丝菌 P. fimbriata1 0.09 0.09
单生叉丝菌 P. solitaria1,2 0.29 0.29 0.44 0.17 0.61
发网菌属
Stemonitis
小发网菌 S. viriginiensis 0.42 0.42

表2

皇甫山和紫金山不同林型中黏菌的各类群数量和物种多样性指数"

取样地点Sampling sites
安徽滁州皇甫山 Huangfu Mountain, Anhui 江苏南京紫金山 Zijin Mountain, Jiangsu
针叶林
Coniferous forest
阔叶林
Broad-leaved forest
针叶林
Coniferous forest
阔叶林
Broad-leaved forest
科数Number of
families
属数Number of
genera
种数Number of
species
科数Number of
families
属数Number of
genera
种数Number of
species
科数Number of
families
属数Number of
genera
种数Number of
species
科数Number of
families
属数Number of
genera
种数Number of
species
刺轴菌目 Echinosteliales 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
无丝菌目 Liceales 2 3 8 2 2 4 2 2 5 2 2 4
团毛菌目 Trichiales 2 2 2 2 4 7 1 1 1 3 5 11
绒泡菌目 Physarales 2 2 5 2 4 14 2 3 4 2 5 20
发网菌目 Stemonitales 1 4 8 1 3 3 1 6 10 1 3 3
合计 Total 9 13 25 9 15 30 8 14 22 10 17 40
多样性指数 Shannon index (H') 2.19 2.47 2.01 2.52

表3

皇甫山和紫金山不同林型中黏菌的相似性系数(对角线上)和共有种(对角线下)"

皇甫山针叶林
Coniferous forest of Huangfu Mountain
皇甫山阔叶林
Broad-leaved forest of Huangfu Mountain
紫金山针叶林
Coniferous forest of Zijin Mountain
紫金山阔叶林
Broad-leaved forest of Zijin Mountain
皇甫山针叶林
Coniferous forest of Huangfu Mountain
- 50.91 59.57 40.00
皇甫山阔叶林
Broad-leaved forest of Huangfu Mountain
14 - 38.46 68.57
紫金山针叶林
Coniferous forest of Zijin Mountain
14 10 - 35.48
紫金山阔叶林
Broad-leaved forest of Zijin Mountain
13 24 11 -
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