生物多样性 ›› 2011, Vol. 19 ›› Issue (6): 729-736.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2011.08155

所属专题: 中国的海洋生物多样性

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国海棘皮动物的种类组成及区系特点

廖玉麟1*, 肖宁1, 2   

  1. 1中国科学院海洋研究所, 山东青岛 266071
    2中国科学院研究生院, 北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2011-08-29 修回日期:2011-11-12 出版日期:2011-11-20
  • 通讯作者: 廖玉麟 E-mail:liaoyulin@163.com

Species composition and faunal characteristics of echinoderms in China seas

Yulin Liao1*, Ning Xiao1, 2   

  1. 1 Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, Shandong 266071

    2 Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
  • Received:2011-08-29 Revised:2011-11-12 Online:2011-11-20
  • Contact: Yulin Liao E-mail:liaoyulin@163.com

棘皮动物是大型底栖动物的重要类群和组成部分。本文从种类组成和区系分布类型两个方面分析了各海区棘皮动物的多样性特点, 讨论了温度、海流和水团等海洋环境因素对棘皮动物分布的影响。目前中国海域棘皮动物已记录有591种, 包括海百合纲44种, 海星纲86种, 海胆纲93种, 海参纲147种, 蛇尾纲221种。黄、渤海和东海、南海的种类组成存在显著差异:黄、渤海棘皮动物仅59种, 东海200多种, 南海约450种。呈现从北往南种数逐渐增多,暖水性也逐渐增强的分布特征。值得提出的是, 黄海夏季冷水团的存在使黄海较深水域常年保持了显著较低的水温环境, 以萨氏真蛇尾(Ophiura sarsii vadicola)和紫蛇尾(Ophiopholis mirabilis)等为优势种的冷水群落得以存在和发展, 数量上占绝对优势;黄海区系属于北太平洋温带区系的一个次级生物地理单元。但是在这591种棘皮动物中, 只有34种是居于北太平洋温带区域, 仅占总种数的5.8%; 557种是暖水种(约占94.2%), 其中大多数种类分布于印度—西太平洋区域。因此总体来说, 中国海域棘皮动物区系暖水性成分占压倒性优势。

The echinoderms are important components of macrobenthos. In order to understand the diversity of echinoderm fauna of China seas, the characteristics of their fauna are analysed according to the species composition and distribution patterns. The effects of marine environmental factors such as temperature, currents and water mass to the distribution of echinoderms are also discussed. The results showed that the echinoderm fauna of China seas now comprise 591 species in 5 classes: 44 crinoids, 86 starfish, 93 sea urchins, 147 sea cucumbers, and 221 ophiuroids. There is significant difference in species composition of echinoderms between the Yellow Sea, the East China Sea and the South China Sea. Only 59 species are distributed in the Yellow Sea; more than 200 species are distributed in the East China Sea; the number of species known from the South China Sea is about 450. The distributional characteristic of species shows that the species number and the warm water species are on the increase from the north toward the south. It is worth mentioning that the cold water species dominated by the ophiuroids Ophiura sarsii vadicola and Ophiopholis mirabilis are found in large quantities in the deeper part of the Yellow Sea due to the existence of the Yellow Sea Cold water mass (where the summer bottom water temperature is not higher than 4–8℃ in the north, and 8–12℃ in the south) in the summer. Consequently, the present authors are of the opinion that the echinoderm fauna of the Yellow Sea should be considered as a constituent portion of the temperate fauna, being a subregion belonging to North Pacific Temperate Biotic Region. Of the 591 species of echinoderms, 34 species are elements of North temperate fauna (sharing 5.8%); 557 species are warm water species (sharing 94.2%), most species of which are widely distributed in Indo-west Pacific region. Generally speaking, the echinoderm fauna of China Seas is predominantly warm water elements.

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