生物多样性 ›› 2011, Vol. 19 ›› Issue (6): 716-722.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2011.07158

所属专题: 中国的海洋生物多样性

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中国海典型生境双壳类软体动物多样性特点

徐凤山1*, 张均龙1, 2   

  1. 1中国科学院海洋研究所, 山东青岛 266071
    2中国科学院研究生院, 北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2011-09-07 修回日期:2011-11-08 出版日期:2011-11-20
  • 通讯作者: 徐凤山 E-mail:xubocin@yahoo.com.cn

Characteristics of bivalve diversity in typical habitats of China seas

Fengshan Xu1*, Junlong Zhang1, 2   

  1. 1 Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, Shandong 266071

    2 Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
  • Received:2011-09-07 Revised:2011-11-08 Online:2011-11-20
  • Contact: Fengshan Xu E-mail:xubocin@yahoo.com.cn

中国海域广阔、海岸线绵长、环境复杂、包含的生境多样, 对中国海典型生境中双壳类软体动物多样性的分析, 可以反映中国海双壳类软体动物的区系特点。作者根据多年的研究成果和国内外贝类学家的报道, 对不同典型生境的双壳类软体动物的多样性特点、生活环境、生态习性进行了阐述, 对不同海区的双壳类软体动物的分布特点进行了分析。由于沿岸水、冷水团及黄海暖流的影响, 黄海的区系组成最为复杂; 受台湾暖流和黑潮暖流的影响, 东海的多样性呈现出随纬度降低、离岸越远, 暖水种增加且暖水性增强的特点; 南海由于南部濒临赤道, 北部属亚热带, 存在珊瑚礁、红树林、海草场等多种生境, 其多样性最高。到目前为止, 中国海的双壳类软体动物共记录有1,104种, 分属于77科393属, 其中渤海有68属87种, 黄海121属175种, 东海195属337种, 南海的种类最多, 297属822种。

With vast sea areas, long coastline and complex environmental conditions, the China seas contain various habitats for bivalves. The diversity characteristics of some typical habitats can reflect the molluscan fauna of China seas. Based on our years of work and records from malacologists home and abroad, the bivalve diversity, habitats and ecological habits in different environments are described, and the distribution characters in different sea areas are analysed. Due to the effects of coastal water, Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass and Yellow Sea Warm Current, faunal elements in Yellow Sea are the most complex. Most of the species in East China Sea are subtropical elements, and the warm water species increases with the decrease of latitude and distance from coast, because of the hydrological characters of Kuroshio Warm Current and Taiwan Warm Current. The south part of the South China Sea is close to the equator and the north part is subtropical, with many special habitats, such as, coral reefs, mangroves and sea grass beds. The biodiversity is the highest among China seas. Up to now, a total of 1,104 species of bivalves belonging to 393 genera 77 families are reported. The number of species occurred in Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea, East China Sea and South China Sea are 87, 175, 337 and 822 respectively.

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