生物多样性 ›› 2010, Vol. 18 ›› Issue (4): 355-364.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2010.355

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

喀斯特峰丛洼地不同类型森林群落的组成与生物多样性特征

宋同清1, 2*, 彭晚霞1, 2, 曾馥平1, 2, 王克林1, 2, 曹洪麟3, 李先琨4, 覃文更5, 谭卫宁5, 刘璐1, 2   

  1. 1 中国科学院亚热带农业生态研究所亚热带农业生态过程重点实验室, 长沙 410125
    2 中国科学院环江喀斯特生态系统观测研究站, 广西环江 547100
    3 中国科学院华南植物园, 广州 510650
    4 广西壮族自治区、中国科学院广西植物研究所, 桂林 541006
    5 广西壮族自治区木论国家级自然保护区管理局, 广西环江 547200
  • 收稿日期:2010-01-07 出版日期:2010-07-20
  • 通讯作者: 宋同清

Community composition and biodiversity characteristics of forests in Karst cluster-peak-depression region

Tongqing Song1, 2*; Wanxia Peng1, 2; Fuping Zeng1, 2; Kelin Wang1, 2; Honglin Cao3; Xiankun Li4; Wengeng Qin5; Weining Tan5; Lu Liu1, 2   

  1. 1 Key Laboratory of Agro-ecological Processes in Subtropical Region, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha 410125

    2 Huanjiang Observation and Research Station of Karst Ecosystem, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Huanjiang, Guangxi 547100

    3 South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510650

    4 Guangxi Institute of Botany, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region and Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guilin 541006

    5 Mulun Administration of National Nature Reserve, Guangxi, Huanjiang 547200
  • Received:2010-01-07 Online:2010-07-20
  • Contact: Tongqing Song

不同退化程度石漠化生态重建的关键是恢复植被, 提高土地生产力。本文基于动态监测样地(200 m × 40 m)植被的全面调查, 研究了喀斯特峰丛洼地人工林、次生林和原生林3类典型森林群落木本植物的组成与生物多样性特征。结果表明, 3类森林的物种组成分别为26科52属65种、33科68属100种和43科91属123种, 常绿物种分别占41.54%、47.00%和52.85%; 科、属、种和生活型组成复杂, 优势科或种明显, TWINSPAN分类第3级水平上可分别划分为8、9和8个群落类型。原生林多样性和结构性指标均高于人工林和次生林, 人工林的Shannon-Wiener指数、Simpson指数、均匀度、冠幅、胸径和树高均高于次生林, 而种类、密度和盖度则低于次生林。不同类型森林群落特征不同, 应采取相应的经营策略。

To explore the spatio-temporal distributional patterns of the vegetation in a Karst cluster- peak-depression region, we investigated the species composition and diversity characteristics of three forests inside 200 m × 40 m dynamic monitoring plots in Huanjiang County of Guangxi. Results showed that plant communities changed from plantation to secondary forest to primary forest with increasing diversity associated with reduced disturbance intensity. We recorded 65 woody species belonging to 26 families and 52 genera, 100 woody species belonging to 33 families and 68 genera, and 123 woody species belonging to 43 families and 91 genera in the plantation, secondary, and primary forests, respectively. Evergreens accounted for 41.5%, 47.0%, and 52.9% of species in the plantation, secondary, and primary forests, respectively. Meanwhile, the families characterized with one species accounted for 39.46%, 36.36%, and 53.66% of the total families in the plantation, secondary, and primary forests, respectively. The dominant families and species with an IV (importance value) > 10.00 numbered 6 families and 6 species (23.1% and 9.2% of total), 6 families and 5 species (18.1% and 5%), and 10 families and 7 species (23.3% and 5.7%) in the plantation, secondary, and primary forests, respectively. While the proportions of these IVs were up to 76.1% and 65.2%, 81.0% and 66.2%, and 64.4% and 32.5% of the sum IVs of respective families and species in the corresponding forests. Two-way indicator species analysis (TWINSPAN) divided the plantation, secondary forest, and primary forest into 8, 9, and 8 community groups at the third level, respectively. Diversity and structure indices were significantly higher in the primary forest than in the plantation and secondary forests, except for crown breadth and Simpson index in the plantation. The values of Simpson index and evenness in the plantation were highly significantly higher than in the secondary forest. And the values of density and coverage in the plantation were highly significantly lower than in the secondary forest. Thus, variable disturbance intensity resulted in variation in communities’ composition and diversity characteristics in these forests. Our results may be informative for choosing forest management strategies in the Karst cluster-peak-depression region.

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